Hard Bumps on Face

Hard Bumps on Face

Everyone once in awhile has to face a problem when they see little, ugly and hard bumps on face. We don’t want to face people with those unwanted guests and try to hide them behind our makeup. Some are quite harmless, and will go away on their own. But some are quite dangerous, and may be a sign of some health problems and a doctor must be consulted, if the bumps persist. They’ll help us recognize the cause and treatment of the unsightly bumps. Let us discuss some of them.

Symptoms of Hard Bumps on Face

Hard bumps on face can occur in one or more forms:

  • Small, firm white bumps
  • Enlarged oil glands
  • Moles
  • Acne
  • Red hard bumps on the face that are often very itchy
  • Hard bumps on face oozing liquid
  • Hard bumps on the nose
  • Red, raised bumps around lips and lower part of the face

Causes and Treatments of Hard Bumps on Face

  1. Acne :- Acne is the most common form of hard bumps on face. Pimples and blackheads are some forms of acne. About 80%of the teenagers have them at some time or the other. They are caused by the acne nodules and cysts. Blackheads are caused when the dead skin gets into the pores of the skin and blocks them. These dead skin cells are treated by the immune system of the body as foreign objects, causing them to become inflamed. This causes the bumps to become pussy and painful. These are called pimples. They are sensitive to touch and may stay with you for a week or so. One should always resist touching them or scratching them, or they’ll leave behind ugly marks. They usually occur on the forehead, nose cheeks on chin. These majorly affect the people with more oily skin.
    • Home Remedies:  To avoid getting more acne a proper skin care regime has to be followed.   Wash the face with a mild face wash or an antiseptic wash at least twice so that the dead skin cells and excess oil are cleaned away. When the acne is present, scrubbing should be avoided and some over the counter anti-acne creams should be applied on the bumps. Benzoyl peroxide (it kills the bacteria, and unplug the clogged pores), Retinoids (unplugs the pores and reduces inflammation, Azelaic Acid (causes less skin irritation and is softer on the skin than the other two), are some good examples of acne treating medicines.
    • Medical Treatment:  However, if you are prone to a regular acne problem, visiting a good dermatologist is a wise option. They may prescribe some changes in eating habits, face wash , and also some  topical antibiotics, which will help to reduce bacteria, and inflammation. They may also be helpful in reducing the scarring from the acne.
  1. Sebaceous Cysts :- Sebaceous cysts are non-cancerous, small and slow-growing bumps under the skin. They are also called steatocystoma simplex. They look like a dome. Their origin is the sebaceous gland and is filled with a liquid called sebum. They are quite rare. Although the term Sebaceous cyst if often used for the more common cyst like an epidermoid and pilar cyst. Generally, they are not painful, unless it becomes inflamed, and demands treatment. They may occur anywhere on the face, neck, back, or near the genital organs.
    • Medical Treatment:  Removal of the cyst through surgery is the only option to cure it. The doctors apply local anaesthesia around the cyst and sterilise them before operating. He would squeeze keratin around the cyst and then uses forceps will pull out the cyst. A scar will stay in the cyst area. Some oral antibiotics are prescribed post operation.
    • Home Remedies:  The waxy liquid called sebum inside the cyst can be drained out from the cyst by softening it with hot compresses like hot pads, or hot water bottles, for about 10 days.. This helps the area to drain and heal. After softening it, mild pressure around the are will expel the sebum. But sometimes these may cause infection if not done properly. It that case visits a doctor immediately. (For more information on Sebaceous cyst Click here.)
  1. Ingrown Hair :- People with curly hair are more prone to this kind of hard bumps on the face. Sometimes, as the hair comes out of the follicles, it may curl back and enter the soft skin and gets trapped inside. On occasion, a dead skin pigment on the skin may not allow the hair to come out and it stays on the skin. The hairs that stay below the skin instead of coming out, cause ingrown hair. Even after shaving, sometimes the sharpened hard hair curls and pierces the skin and enters the skin. All these cause the irritating and hard bumps. The immunity system of the body treats these hairs as foreign invaders and attack them causing itch and make it uncomfortable. (To know about ingrown hair in pubic area Click here.)
    • Proper Skin Care:  The process includes scrubbing of the dead skin over the hair, with a mild soap so as to release the trapped hair. Sometimes, if the ingrown hair is not treated on time, it may become infected, swollen and painful. Doctors may prescribe some steroid medicines to bring down the inflammation. Retinoids are also given to remove dead skin cells. He may also give you some oral antibiotics.
    • Proper shaving technique can help. Softening the hairs with a warm cloth is advisable before shaving. Using a clean and sharp blade will ensure a fast shave without too many strokes on the same area. Wash the razor after every stroke. Using a good quality shaving lotion or gel is also vital because they contain hair softening agents. It will ensure a smooth and close shave. After shaving lotions or a cool compress will help to soothe the area and prevent irritation.
  1. Milia :- The Milia or milium cyst is the hard bump that often appears in groups around the nose or on cheeks. The cause of Milia is still unknown, although in newborns it is thought to be triggered due to the mother’s hormones. They are filled with keratin, which is a form of protein. It is white in colour.
    • How to Treat:  The Milia are not painful. But they are not pleasant to the eyes. The treatment of Milia can be at home or by a doctor. It is generally deroofed, by a sterile needle, and the keratin is squeezed out. Some medications like retinoids can be administered at times. When the Milia is nearer to the eyes, on the soft skin, the process should be done very carefully. In a newborn treatment is not needed. They go away within a week.
    • How to Remove the Bump:  In small Milia, the above process will remove them, i.e. breaking open the skin and eliminating the liquid. The hard bump will go away.Larger Milia, on the other hand, are not as easy. It should be cleaned first, and then pierced with a sterilised safety pin or needle to create a hole. Squeeze out the keratin inside. It may sometimes be accompanied by a minor bleeding. Application of some antiseptic after the process is advisable.
  1. Allergy Reaction :- Some allergies are minor, some life taking. Whatever type it may be, hard bumps break out on the face have to be treated. Anaphylaxis is a severe life-threatening allergy, which causes hard bumps on face. It is very dangerous. Hives and bumps on face, swelling of the lip and tongue are some of its symptoms. People with allergy problems like asthma are prone to these type of reactions. These allergies may be because of foods, insect bites, or some sort of medications. The patient needs immediate medical treatment.
    • How to Treat: If you have an allergy reaction, a visit to the dermatologist is necessary. They may prescribe some antibiotics and ask you to do some tests, to determine what your body is allergic to. The foods etc which may cause those reactions must be avoided at all costs. The bumps are only the symptoms in such cases. The medicines should be taken as prescribed.
  1. Skin Cancer :- The most commonly known sign of a skin cancer is, hard bumps on face that do not heal. They are sore and oozes out blood and pus after a minor trauma. They often grow slowly, under the skin, in a dome shape, but may become painful and bloody after a few days. Alteration in genes, and excessive sun exposure can cause skin cancer.
    • If these symptoms persist, one should immediately consult a dermatologist. After some biopsy and some medical tests he will be able to determine the cause of the bumps are cancerous or not.
    • How to Treat: If you are diagnosed with skin cancer, you may have to undergo radiotherapy and chemotherapy depending upon the stage.
  2. Mosquito Bite Allergy :- A mosquito bite and a mosquito bite allergy are two different things. When a female mosquito lands on a person’s skin and inserts her proboscis to draw the person’s blood, red hard bumps begin to form and itching begins to start. These bumps are not not a result of the bite but an opposing reaction  of the body’s immune system to the saliva of the mosquito.
    • How to Treat: The following methods can be used to treat a Mosquito Bite Allergy:
      • A hydrocortisone cream
      • Calamine lotion
      • Oral antihistamines
      • A cold water bath without soap
      • A cold pack
  3. Cold Sores :- Cold sores are red hard bumps on face which are red and filled with fluid. They are caused by a common virus named herpes simplex and can spread from one person to another. (To know whether your bump is cold sore or pimple Click here.)
    • How to Treat: The following methods can be used to treat Cold Sores:
      • Antiviral Creams and Ointments
      • Oral Antiviral Medications
      • Home Remedies or Natural Agents like Aloe Vera Gel and Petroleum Jelly can be used to treat cold sores.
  4. Scabies :- Hard bumps on face can also be formed due to Scabies, a skin infection caused by a tiny mite called Sarcoptes Scabiei. These microorganisms breed on the skin and even lay their eggs below the skin resulting in redness, formation of bumps and severe itching.
    • How to Treat: Scabies can be treated using antimicrobial creams, lotions and ointments. Your doctor may also prescribe medication like antihistamines (Benadryl or Pramoxine Lotion), steroid creams and antibiotic creams and ointments.
  5. Skin Tag: A skin tag is a harmless growth on the skin of the face. They can be one or more in number and usually appear as hard bumps on face. They are made of small tissues that are composed of blood vessels and a protein fiber called collagen. They are harmless in nature and can also grow in other parts of the body like breasts, neck, hands and thighs.
    • How to Treat: These growths generally do not require any treatment. In rare cases, they can become red and start itching. The only way to get rid of them is using surgical removal.
  6. Chickenpox :- Chickenpox is a viral disease which often affects children. It is characterized by fluid-filled, red blisters which are very painful. This infection is also marked by hard bumps on face and other parts of the body including the scalp.
    • How to Treat: There is no treatment as such for Chickenpox and the only way to provide relief is manage the symptoms. Topical ointments and creams are used to relieve severe itching and the patient is also advised to bathe with lukewarm water.



Cyst Definition and meaning:- It is an abnormal lump or sac like structure, mostly filled with fluid which can be found anywhere on the body.

What is a Cyst?

It is an abnormal pouch like structure or lump that can grow anywhere on the body. It is usually filled with liquid substance, but sometimes a it can also contain a gaseous or semi-solid substance and have an outer layer termed as a capsule.

Cysts can vary in size depending upon the type and location of occurrence. Some cysts are just a few centimeters in diameter while some are so large that they can even cause displacement of certain organs. For instance, an ovarian cyst can cause the ovary to twist resulting in blocked blood supply and severe pain.

The lump can occur at various locations or tissues and is often named after the area where it occurs. For example, a fluid filled growth in the ovary is called an ovarian cyst while the one that occurs in the brain is called a brain cyst.

31 Types of Cyst in Human Body

There are as many as hundred types of cysts that can grow anywhere on the body. Most of the them are benign; however some cysts can become cancerous if left untreated. Let’s look at different types of cysts that are found in the body:

  1. Breast Cyst is a fluid-filled sac inside the breast. A woman can have a it in one breast or even both. They are usually round or oval in shape and have divergent edges. A breast cyst can vary in size from mere centimeters to up to 2 inches in diameter and often resembles a water-balloon. Click here for detailed information.
  1. Ganglion Cyst typically affects the joints and tendons. It is a bulge on the wrists or hands that occurs alongside the tendons or joints. It is filled with a clear fluid and looks like a golf ball filled with thick, gummy and clear looking gelatine like material. Check out for more information.
  1. Dermoid Lump is a sac like growth present since birth and contains fillings like teeth, hair, fluid or extra skin glands that are found in the skin. It can be found in diverse organs or parts of the body like ovaries, spine, nasal canal, brain or the neck and can grow in the womb itself. It is difficult to prevent a dermoid cyst. Click here to get more information.
  1. Ovarian Cyst  is an assembly of fluid or a fluid filled sac which develops in one or both the ovaries of a woman. Any ovarian follicle present in the ovaries which is larger than 2 cm in diameter is termed as an ovarian cyst. They can range comprehensively in size and can be as small as a pearl or as large as an orange. Check out for more information by clicking here.
  1. Baker’s Cyst  is a fluid filled pouch that occurs as a lump at the back side of the knee. It is filled with synovial fluid that is a greasing fluid found inside the knee joint and is mostly found in patients who have an underlying knee condition like osteoarthritis. It is also called a popliteal cyst. Click here to know more.
  1. Bartholin Cyst  is a fluid or mucus filled sac which forms when the duct of the Bartholin gland gets clogged. If the fluid inside the cyst gets infected, you can develop pus formation surrounded by inflamed tissues resulting in Bartholin abscess formation. Click here to get more information.
  1. Arachnoid Cyst :- It is an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid covered by collagen and the arachnoid cells. It develops in between the base of the brain in the cranial base or on the arachnoid membrane.
  1. Labia Cyst is a fluid-filled closed sac that can occur on either side of the vaginal canal. It is painless in nature and is often caused by physical trauma, such as laceration or surgery. The cyst is usually very small and cannot be seen by the naked eye, but in some rare cases it may grow to the size of an apple.
  1. Pilonidal Cyst is an atypical growth in the skin and is usually filled with hair and skin debris. It is located at the extreme end of the tail bone and at the top fold of the rears above the sacrum. It usually occurs when a hair strand punctures the skin and gets embedded in it. Click here to check out for more information.
  1. A Nabothian cyst is a cyst or a mucous filled sac that grows on the surface of the cervix, which is the joining body part between the vagina and the uterus located at the lower end of the uterus, at the top of the vagina. Click here for more information.
  1. Spermatocele :- A cyst like mass that forms within the epididymis is called Spermatocele. It is filled with deceased sperm cells and fluid and is also called an epididymis cyst. Spermatoceles are benign in nature and do not affect the sexual functioning of a man or his erectile role or reproductive capability. click here for more information on spermatocele.
  1. Pineal Cyst :- Pineal cysts are the cysts that form in the pineal gland, a small organ in the brain that produces melatonin which is a sleep-regulating hormone. Pineal cysts are very common and are often found in up to 15% of people undergoing CT or MRI brain imaging.
  1. A Sebaceous cyst is a benign cyst that forms on the skin and contain an oily or semi-liquid material. It often contains fragments of Keratin that is whitish in color. They are mostly seen on the face, neck or torso. It is a slow growing lump under the skin which is mobile and gives out coarse order. Find out more by clicking here.
  1. Colloid Cyst is a gradually-growing tumor which is typically found near the center of the brain. In case it becomes large, it obstructs cerebrospinal fluid movement, resulting in accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain (hydrocephalus) and raised brain pressure.
  1. Thyroid Cyst is a fluid-filled nodule in the thyroid glands, resulting from the degeneration of thyroid adenomas. These cysts are generally benign in nature, but they infrequently contain malignant solid components.
  1. Pancreatic Cyst :- Pancreatic cysts are bags of fluid on or inside the pancreas which is a large organ behind the stomach that harvests hormones and enzymes required for the digestion of food. Most of the pancreatic cysts benign and do not show any signs or symptoms.
  1. Pilar Cyst which is also known as trichilemmal cysts is a subcutaneous cyst that is found on the scalp. It originates from the hair follicles and is filled with keratin, the protein which is widely found in nails, hair and skin. Pilar cysts are benign in nature and are often inherited from parents. Find out more by clicking here.
  1. Tarlov Cyst :- Tarlov cysts are fluid-filled sacs that affect the nerve origins of the spine, especially near the base of the spine.
  1. Conjunctival Cyst is a thin-walled pouch or vesicle that contains fluid. This cyst may develop either under or inside the conjunctiva. It generally does not require treatment and goes away on its own.
  1. Haemorrhagic Cyst contains blood or starts bleeding is called a Haemorrhagic Cyst. For example, Haemorrhagic ovarian cysts (HOCs) usually result from haemorrhage into a corpus luteum or other functional cyst.
  1. A maxillary sinus cyst is a benign formation which is a small pouch with a two-layer boundary and is filled with liquid. They are not harmful unless they breed themselves and cause intrusion on the growth of other tissues neighboring them. They can be caused by contaminations or inflammatory reactions.
  1. Aneurysmal Cyst :- These abrasions are found in bones and other arrangements and contain of neoplastic cells and blood vessels that look like a sponge-like structure.
  1. Liver Cyst or Hepatic Cyst is a fluid-filled cavity in the liver which usually causes no signs or symptoms. It usually does not require treatment. Sometimes it may become large enough to cause pain or uneasiness in the upper right part of the abdomen.
  1. Lumbar Synovial Cyst  grows in the lumbar spine and may cause symptoms of spinal stenosis is called Lumbar Synovial.
  1. Epidermoid Cyst :- Epidermoid cysts are also called sebaceous, keratin, or epithelial cysts and are small, hard bumps that develop underneath the skin. These cysts are common and grow very gradually. Epidermoid cysts are often found on the face, head, neck, back, or genitals.
  1. Cystic Hygroma :- A cystic hygroma which is also known as cystic lymphangioma and macrocystic lymphatic malformation is a congenital multiloculated lymphatic lesion that can grow anywhere, but is classically found in the left subsequent area of the neck and armpits.
  1. Hydatid Disease :- In Hydatid disease, a small tapeworm forms cysts in the liver or lungs. The tapeworm eggs are spread by interaction with infested dogs, their faeces or anything contaminated with faeces such as soil.
  1. Chalazion Cyst :- The tiny eyelid glands (meibomian glands) make an emollient that comes out of tiny openings in the edges of the eyelids. Cysts can form if these ducts get blocked due to one or more reasons.
  1.  A dentigerous or follicular cyst is associated with the crown of a non-erupted (or partially erupted) tooth. The cyst cavity is ruled by epithelial cells that grow from the abridged enamel epithelium of the tooth forming organ.
  1. Periapical Cyst :- Periapical cysts, also known as radicular cysts, are the most common cystic lacerations related to teeth and form as a result of infection of the teeth.

They are generally present as round or pear-shaped, unilocular, semi-transparent lesions in the periapical region and less than 1 cm in size.

  1. Renal Cyst :- A variety of cysts can develop in the kidneys. Renal cysts contain fluids and may sometimes also contain blood. Some renal lumps are present since birth while the others may be caused by tubular blockages. Patients with kidney vascular diseases may also have these lumps formed by the dilatation of blood vessels.

Size of a Cyst

The size of can range from a few centimeters to up to 50 centimeters in diameter depending upon its type and location of growth. In case of ovaries, sometimes these can become so large that they cause the ovary to twist (torsion), blocking the blood supply and causing severe pain.

Characteristics of a Cyst

Some precise characteristic that make these fluid filled sacs distinct are:

  • Round or oval shape with distinct edges
  • Gradual growth
  • Movable lumps which are generally painless in nature
  • Lumps filled with one or more substances like fluid, gas, hair or other debris found in the body
  • Redness on getting infected

Symptoms of a Cyst

Most of the small lumps do not show any sign or symptoms. However, the list of symptoms widely depends upon the location of occurrence and type . Some possible symptoms that can be generalized are:

  • Pain in the area of occurrence, especially in case of cysts that grow on or inside the skin
  • A movable lump
  • Increase in size of the lump
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Discomfort
  • Redness
  • Inflammation of the affected area
  • Headache

Causes of a Cyst

Cysts are common defects that can occur in people of any age group, sex or gender. There are a variety of them (as discussed above) and each of them grows as a result of a specific mechanism or reaction in the body.

Some of them are caused by defects during the embryonic growth whereas the others are caused due to physical trauma or obstructions in the flow of body fluids in various organs.

For example, a sebaceous growth is formed due to blockage in the sebaceous gland that contains oil like fluid.

Other causes are:

  • Tumors
  • Genetic circumstances
  • Viral or Bacterial infections
  • Chronic inflammatory diseases
  • Parasite infestation

Which Doctor Treats a Cyst?

The first doctor that you will visit, after discovering your lump will most likely be your general physician or family doctor. However, after diagnostic examinations and findings, you may be referred to a specialist based on the location of occurrence. For instance, for an ovarian cyst you may be referred to a gynecologist, for an unwanted growth in the brain, you may be referred to a neurologist, for a growth in the spine; you may be referred to an orthopedic surgeon and so on.

When are the risk factors associated with cysts?

Though it is difficult to list risk factors for each type, there are certain risk factors that come with all types of cysts. They are:

  • Tumors
  • Infections
  • Serious inflammatory reactions or conditions
  • Malignancy (in very rare cases)

Are cysts and fibroid the same thing?

Fibroids and cysts are benign growths that can cause severe symptoms like pain and bleeding while sometimes they can no symptoms at all. Both can range in size from very small to very large and can be single or multiple during the growth stages.

The main difference between a fibroid and a cyst is the location of occurrence and the texture of the growth. Fibroids are usually found in the uterus while cysts can occur anywhere in the body. Also, cysts are filled with a certain type of fluid, depending upon the type of cyst, while fibroids are filled with dense tissues.

Both can be diagnosed during pelvic ultrasounds and require surgery during the later phases when conventional treatment does not yield good results. Also, the cause of ovarian cysts and fibroids are common which is Liver overwork and Estrogen dominance.

What is the difference between a tumor and a cyst?

A cyst is a sac filled with one or more types of fluid and is usually benign in nature. It can form in any part of the body including parts like bones and soft tissues, whereas, a tumor an abnormal collection of tissues or swelling which can form in any part of the body. A tumor can be benign or cancerous in nature.

Can cysts become cancerous?

Cysts are common fluid-filled growth that can form on any part of the body. They are usually non-cancerous in nature and rarely turn cancerous. However, it is very important to ascertain whether your growth is just a cyst or something serious like cancer.

An ultrasound is the easiest way to find out if your lump is a cyst or not. Your doctor may also create an incision in the sac to drain the extra fluid to check the presence of cancer cells.

Are cysts hereditary?

Yes! Some cysts are hereditary.

For instance, polycystic kidney disease is one autosomal recessive and autosomal disease where the genes that cause them have been identified during medical studies. There is also a strain of genes that causes these lumps to grow in only one part of the kidney called the medulla.

A tendency to form pilar and sebaceous cysts also runs in some families and is hereditary. Other cysts like epidermoid cysts, ovarian cysts, pilonidal cysts etc are generally not causes because of genes or family history.

Are cysts contagious?

No. Cysts are not contagious even if the causative agent in a virus or bacteria. The growth is the body’s reaction to foreign body contamination and is filled with one or more kind of substance like fluid.

When to visit a doctor?

If you are facing any of the below symptoms, then it’s time you must rush to a doctor for immediate consultation:

  • An extremely painful cyst
  • Inflammation or redness
  • A rapidly growing lump
  • Change in color of the lump
  • Sudden rupture
  • Any kind of infection
  • A lump that is oozing pus or blood
  • Sudden onset of high fever

How to prepare yourself for a cyst appointment?

It does not matter whether your first appointment takes place at your general physician’s clinic or a specialist’s clinic. There are certain tips that you should keep in mind and adhere to before you set out for your appointment:

  • Make a detailed list of your symptoms including those which are not directly related to the cyst. Do not miss out on any as your symptoms form the basis of the initial diagnosis.
  • Jot down a brief note of your medical history and on-going treatment (if any)
  • Make a list of medicines and supplements that you are currently taking
  • Prepare a list of questions that you may want to ask your doctor about your cyst.

Some of those questions can be:

  • What caused it to grow?
  • Does the presence of the lump increase my risk of any sort of cancer?
  • What kind of tests will I be asked to undergo?
  • Does the lump require treatment?
  • Are there any points that I have to follow?
  • What is the name of my problem?
  • Does it increase my list of developing cysts in other parts of the body?
  • What if I leave it untreated?
  • Is it hereditary in nature?

For the moment, also be ready to answer the following questions that your doctor may ask you:

  • When did you first notice the symptoms?
  • How long has the lump been there?
  • Is it painful?
  • If yes, what is the severity of the pain?
  • Is it accompanied by fever?
  • Have you ever had a problem like this before?
  • Does anyone if your family have a i?
  • Do you have any underlying medical condition?
  • Are you consuming any medication or supplements?
  • When did you last have any diagnostic tests?

Diagnosis of a Cyst

Once your doctor is sure that you have a cyst, you will be asked to undergo a series of blood tests and imaging tests that will help your doctor conclude which type of cyst you have and what treatment will you require. Some tests that you may be asked to undergo are:

  • Blood tests
  • X-rays
  • Ultrasound
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • CAT scan
  • Needle biopsy (in case the doctor suspects malignancy)

Treatment of a Cyst

Normally, cysts are left alone and do not require any treatment. However, if they grow larger than expected, severely painful, red and swollen or infected, it may require immediate treatment and medical attention. In some cases, surgery may be required to remove the it completely. There are three types of surgical techniques that are used to remove cysts surgically:

  1. Conventional Wide Excision
  2. Minimal Excision
  3. Punch Biopsy Excision
  • Conventional Wide Excision :- This method targets the complete removal of the cyst. A wide excision is made on it without draining it. This procedure is mostly used in case of cysts that are firm and do not drain easily. Though this method ensures that it does not grow again, it leaves a big scar which cannot be hidden easily.
  • Minimal Excision :- This procedure involves removal of the cyst along with drainage. It is opted by those who do not wish to have a long scar on their body. However, this method does not ensure the permanent removal of the lump and it can occur anytime again.
  • Punch Biopsy Excision :- This procedure is carried out with the help of laser technique. The incision on the cyst is created using laser and it is then drained. After 4-5 weeks, the wall of the cyst is removed through the minimal excision method. This procedure is accompanied by minimal scarring and the chances of its recurrence is also very less. The only drawback of this procedure being- it is very time consuming.

Treatment of Underlying Medical Condition

If the cause of the cyst is an underlying medical condition, then the condition must be treated in order to avoid the growth of the unwanted lumps filled with fluid. For instance, osteoarthritis is responsible for a cyst at the back of the knee while Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome or PCOS can be the cause of an ovarian cyst.

Simple Drainage of fluid

Your doctor may drain the trapped fluid from the fluid filled lump using a needle called an aspiration needle. This procedure is performed under the supervision of ultrasounds.

Home Remedies for a Cyst

There are plentiful home remedies that are really helpful in getting rid of different kinds of cysts without the use of surgical treatment. They are:

  • Ice Compress :- You can make ice packs by packing ice cubes in a clean towel. Apply the pack of 15-20 minutes to bring down swelling and pain. Do not apply ice directly over the affected area as it can result in an ice burn. This is useful for cysts like Pilar Cyst, Baker’s cyst and Pilonidal Cyst.
  • Alternate Hot and Cold Compress :- Place a bucket of ice cold water and hot water side by side. Place a towel in both the buckets alternately and place it over the cyst in an alternating fashion for 30-45 seconds each. Continue the hot and cold procedure for 15-20 minutes and repeat 4-5 times a day. Ensure that the water is not very hot or very cold to avoid burning your cyst or the skin.  This technique is also very useful for cysts like Pilar Cyst, Baker’s cyst and Pilonidal Cyst.
  • Apple Cider Vinegar :- It comes handy in eliminating trapped fluid and shrinking the cyst. Prepare a mix by putting together a tablespoon of organic apple cider vinegar and a teaspoon of honey in a glass filled with hand-hot water. Consume the mixture 3-4 times a day before each meal for best results. This is helpful for almost all kinds of cysts.
  • Cold Pressed Castor Oil :- Soak a cotton ball in castor oil and dab it on the cyst gently at least 3 times a day.  This will help in reducing the size of the cyst. The only thing to remember that the cold pressed oil should be a branded one and not any local oil. This is especially very useful in case of Baker’s cyst.
  • Turmeric :- Turmeric is very powerful when it comes to breaking open the cyst and healing it naturally. All you have to do is, boil half a teaspoon of turmeric in one cup of water. Drink the mixture every night before sleeping. You can even consume it during the day. Continue the same remedy for 10-15 days and you will notice changes in the cyst size and shape.
    • You can also make a paste of turmeric and mint and apply it directly on the cyst for half an hour after which you can wash the cyst with plain lukewarm water. This remedy is very useful in case of sebaceous cyst and pilonidal cyst.
  • Baking Soda :- Prepare a mixture of baking soda, salt and water and apply the paste on the cyst. Baking soda has marvellous pH controlling properties which prevents bacterial growth and helps in keeping bacterial infections at bay.
  • Epsom Salt :- You can bathe in a lukewarm Epsom salt bath to get help from pain. It contains magnesium sulphate which helps in providing relief from pain. This home remedy is useful for cysts like pilonidal cysts which are generally painful.
  • Tea Tree Oil :- A magical anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial remedy, tea tree oil helps in dealing with all sorts of bacterial and fungal skin infections that can cause the cyst to become infected. You can prepare a mix of tea tree oil and water and apply it directly on the cyst with the help of a cotton ball. It should contain the ratio 9:1. You can also apply few drops of tea tree oil on the cyst directly and cover it. It is very efficient for treating cysts like sebaceous cyst and pilar cyst.
  • Fresh Herbs :- Herbs like celery seeds; turmeric, black pepper and cinnamon act as powerful anti-inflammatory natural agents and can help in reducing any kind of inflammation caused by the cyst. Make use of these herbs in your day to day meals as much as possible.
  • Cabbage Leaves :- Over the years, cabbage leaves have proved to be a very helpful remedy for treating superficial cysts like dermoid cysts and pilar cysts. It helps in reducing the size of the lump and intensity of pain. All you have to do is, take two clean cabbage leaves and cut them according to the size of your lump. Tie them over the it and leave for 30-45 minutes.
  • Chamomile Tea :- It is considered a good remedy for pain, nausea and discomfort associated especially with ovarian cysts. It is also a very mild sedative and eases stressed and contracted muscles. It is a great remedy of irregular and painful menstrual periods.
    • Mix two spoons of Chamomile Tea in a cup of hot water. Cover and let dissolve for at least 5 minutes. Strain and add one spoon of honey or brown sugar. Consume at least 2 times a day for best results.
  • Ginger Juice :- Ginger prompts menstruation, increases body heat and provides relief from pain and cramps due to its anti-inflammatory properties which makes it an excellent remedy for ovarian cysts.
    • Prepare a mix of ginger juice, turmeric and apple juice together and consume the juice once daily until bump disappears. Ginger tea can also be consumed as an alternate remedy.
  • Homeopathic Measures :- Homeopathic medicines like Silicia and Hedpar Sulph are used to treat almost all cysts naturally. They cause the cyst to reduce in size and disappear without the need of any medication or surgical technique.
  • Vitamin C and D :- Vitamin C and D help in boosting the immune system and allow it to fight deadly bacteria and virus preventing the lumps from deadly infections and rupture. Include citrus fruits like oranges and sweet lime in your daily diet.
  • Aloe Vera Gel :- Aloe Vera gel contains super anti-inflammatory properties that haste up the healing process cysts like Ganglion cysts.
    • Extract some gel from a fresh Aloe Vera leaf and gently apply the gel on the affected area. Leave it untouched for 15-20 minutes after which rinse the gel with plain tap water. Repeat the procedure 2-3 times a day for best results.

Complications of Cysts

There are several possible complications. Some of them are:

  • In case of patients with an infected ruptured lump, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and become dangerous
  • Spinal subdural abscess is also a possible complication if the fatty content causes spread of bacterial infection.
  • In case of growths present in the nasal passage or mouth, the patient can face difficulty in breathing and speech problems
  • Ovarian cysts can cause torsion of the affected ovary, blocking the blood supply and resulting is severe pain.
  • In very rare cases, on being left untreated, they can also transform into carcinomas which are malignant in nature.

Cyst Pictures

Checkout these pictures of different kinds of cysts and how they look.

Breast cyst

Illustration of a lump in the breast

ganglion cyst

Top side view of a Ganglion growth

dermoid cyst

Contents of a dermoid bump

ovarian cyst

Illustration of an Ovarian Cyst

baker's cyst

Baker’s cyst in a patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

bartholin cyst

A Bartholin gland lump vs A normal vagina

Archanoid Cyst

An Archanoid Cyst


A Spermatocele

Thyroid cyst

X-ray image of a growth in the Thyroid gland

Colloid Cyst

MRI image of a cyst in the brain


Lumbar Synovial Cyst

Illustration of a Lumbar Synovial Lump

hepatic cyst

Laparoscopic view of a hepatic cyst

Dermoid Cyst

Dermoid Cyst

Dermoid Cyst Definition and Meaning :- It is a pouch like growth present at birth which contains debris like teeth, hair, liquid, or extra skin glands that are found in the skin.

What is Dermoid Cyst?

It is an abnormal growth or a benign tumor which is also called a teratoma. It is made up of structures like teeth, hair, skin glands or fluid.

It can be found in different organs or parts of the body like ovaries, spine, nasal canal, brain or the neck and can start growing much before the baby is even born. It can grow in the womb itself and cannot be prevented.

It is a very slow growing cyst and can go unnoticed until a child grows into an adult. Some Dermoid cysts require treatment depending upon the location of occurrence and effects while some do not cause any problems and can be left untreated.

Types of Dermoid Cysts

Based on the location of growth, a dermoid cyst can be of the following types:

  1. Dermoid cyst in the brain :- Though very rare, a dermoid cyst can also grow inside the skull in the brain. In such cases, a neurological surgery may be required if the cyst starts causing trouble or symptoms.
  1. Dermoid cyst in the nasal passage :- This type of cyst is also very rare. Only 10-20 such cases are reported every year and their surgical removal is often very complicated.
  1. Dermoid cyst in the ovary :- An ovarian dermoid cyst can grow inside a woman in her reproductive phase of her life and can cause severe complications like ovarian torsion, rupture, infection and cancer. This type of dermoid cyst is removed either by conventional surgery or laparoscopy in which a small cut in made in order to enter the pelvic region and remove the cyst by drainage or surgery.
  1. Dermoid cyst in the spinal cord :- Spinal dermoid cysts are single or multilocular cystic tumours aligned by squamous epithelium. These types of cysts are highly prone to infection and their removal is very difficult. It is usually incomplete but the result is very useful.

Size of a Dermoid Cyst

The size of a dermoid cyst can range from a few centimetres to up to 50 centimetres in diameter. In case of ovaries, sometimes these cysts are so large that they can cause the ovary to twist (torsion) and block its blood supply.

Characteristics of a Dermoid Cyst

  • This type of cyst starts growing as the foetus begins to grow inside the womb.
  • They grow gradually and are noticed when the child grows into an adult.
  • Dermoid cysts are painless (unless ruptured) and tender.
  • They are not attached to the skin layer covering them.

Dermoid Cyst Symptoms

Most of the dermoid cysts do not show any symptoms. However, the list of symptoms widely depends upon the location of occurrence of the cyst. Some possible symptoms are:

  • Abdominal, pelvic or lower back pain
  • Difficulty while urinating
  • Urine retention
  • Abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Severe menstrual pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Indigestion
  • Pain sensation during sexual intercourse
  • Sudden weight gain
  • Discomfort
  • Bloating
  • Severe abdominal pain

Dermoid Cyst Causes

A dermoid cyst forms from a totipotential germ cell that is retained within the ovary. This particular cell is responsible for the formation of all sorts of mature tissues and body structures like bone, hair, tissue and body fluids.

Dermoid cysts can be diagnosed at any age, but the time of development is during the childbirth phase.

Which doctor treats a Dermoid Cyst?

The first doctor that you will visit, after discovering your dermoid cyst will most likely be your general physician or family doctor. However, after diagnostic tests and other findings, you may be referred to a specialist based on the location of occurrence of the cyst. For the brain, you may be referred to a neurologist, for the spine, you may be referred to an orthopaedic surgeon and for the ovary you may be referred to a gynaecologist. In case of a nasal cyst, an ENT surgeon will be the right choice.

When to visit a doctor?

You may need to visit a doctor immediately if any of the symptoms are seen:

  • An extremely painful cyst
  • An inflamed cyst
  • A cyst that is growing rapidly
  • A cyst that is changing colour
  • If removal is required for cosmetic reasons
  • In case the cyst ruptures

How to prepare yourself for the appointment?

Your first appointment can take place at your general physician’s clinic. Follow the below instructions that maybe helpful for a fruitful appointment:

  • Note down your symptoms including those which are not directly related to the dermoid cyst
  • Prepare a short note of your medical history and on-going treatment (if any)
  • Make a list of medicines and supplements that you are currently taking
  • Make a list of questions that you may want to ask your doctor about your dermoid cyst like:
  • What caused the cyst to grow?
  • Does the presence of the cyst increase my risk of any sort of cancer?
  • What kind of tests will I be asked to undergo?
  • Does the cyst required treatment?
  • Are there any points that I have to follow?
  • Meanwhile, also be ready to answer the following questions that your doctor may ask you:
  • When did you first notice the symptoms?
  • When did you first notice the dermoid sac?
  • How long has the cyst been there?
  • Is it painful?
  • If yes, what is the severity of the pain?
  • What sort of changes do you notice during your periods?
  • Are you periods normal/heavy?
  • Are they very painful?
  • Do you have nausea?
  • Do you have a family history of dermoid cysts?
  • Have you undergone any kind of diagnostic tests before coming for the appointment?
  • Do you have any record of the cyst since your birth?

Dermoid Cyst Diagnosis

Once your doctor is sure that you have a dermoid cyst, you will be asked to undergo proper screening which may include a series of diagnostic tests and findings. Your doctor may ask you questions related to your family history, past medical difficulties and list of current medications. Based on the results of initial medical tests and examination, your doctor may recommend further testing and treatment:

  • CBC or Complete blood count
  • CT Scan
  • Ultrasound
  • MRI

Treatment of a Dermoid Cyst

Once the doctor confirms the presence of a dermoid cyst, further treatment may not be required in some cases. However, if the cyst becomes painful and causes discomfort or one of more severe symptoms mentioned above, your doctor may recommend the following treatment:

Surgical Removal

Surgical removal is required when the symptoms are severe and the cyst is accompanied by one or more complications. Surgery should be carried out very carefully as the fatty content of the cyst may spread to the surrounding tissues causing severe infection in case the cyst is affected by bacteria.

In case of occurrence of dermoid cysts in complicated areas like the tongue or the lower part of the mouth, minimal invasive surgeries have been successful.

Ovarian dermoid cyst, spinal dermoid cyst and dermoid cysts in the brain are most difficult to treat. Highly experienced gynaecologists or neurologists are appointment to carry of the removal surgery in such cases.

Home Remedies for Dermoid Cyst

There are numerous home remedies that are really helpful in getting rid of dermoid cyst without surgery. They are:

Garlic and Margosa leaves :- One of the most effective ways of getting rid of dermoid cysts is a paste of garlic and margosa leaves. The paste has fabulous anti-inflammatory properties from garlic and magical anti-bacterial properties from margosa leaves.

Rice Hot Compress :- This is another popular home remedy for dermoid cysts that are present superficially.

How to use:

  • Put a spoon on uncooked rice in a sock and seal the open end by tying it
  • Warm this sock over a pan
  • Gently apply the rice compress on the affected breast
  • Repeat 2-3 times a day to get rid of the cysts and avoid recurrence of more dermoid cysts

Cabbage Leaves :- Over the years, cabbage leaves have proved to be a very helpful remedy for treating superficial dermoid cysts. It helps in reducing the size of the dermoid cyst and pain.

How to use:

  • Take two clean cabbage leave
  • Cut them according to the size of your breast
  • Tie them over the breast
  • Leave for 30-45 minutes

Tea Tree Oil :- This can be used to reduce the size of the cyst and protect it from any sort of bacterial infection. The concentration of tea tree oil should be at 5%. It is also effective in case of other cysts like pilonidal cyst, ganglion cyst and pilar cyst.

Apply Heat Compress :- You can use hot water bottles or heating pads to provide relief from pain. Also, warm water showers can be really helpful in reducing pain and discomfort. This remedy is also helpful in case of pilonidal cysts and ganglion cysts.

Homeopathic Measures :- Homeopathic medicines like Silicia and Hedpar Sulph are used to treat almost all cysts naturally. They cause the cyst to shrink and disappear without the need of any medicine or surgical procedure.

Complications of Dermoid Cyst

There are several possible complications of dermoid cysts. Some of them are:

  • In case of patients with a ruptured spinal dermoid cyst, fatty content from the cyst can enter the cerebrospinal fluid and central canal of the spinal cord.
  • Spinal subdural abscess is also a possible complication if the fatty content causes spread of bacterial infection.
  • In case of dermoid cysts present in the nasal passage or mouth, the patient can face difficulty in breathing and speech problems
  • Nasal dermoid cysts can also be a social complication for young children
  • Ovarian dermoid cysts can cause torsion of the affected ovary, blocking the blood supply and resulting is severe pain.
  • In very rare cases, on being left untreated, ovarian dermoid cysts can also transform into carcinomas which are malignant in nature.

Dermoid Cyst Pictures

Check out these pictures of  a dermoid cyst that will help you understand what it exactly is and how it appears.

dermoid cyst picture

Image 1 :- A superficial dermoid cyst on the left eyebrow of a young child

Bilateral dermoid cysts picture

Image 2 :- Bilateral dermoid cysts

dermoid cyst picture

Image 3 :- Contents of a dermoid cyst

dermoid cyst picture 3

Image 4 :- Ovarian Dermoid Cyst Picture

Itchy soles of feet

Itchy soles of feet

What do you mean by itchy soles of feet?

There are certain times during the day when the soles of your feet become very itchy and the urge to scratch just does not go away. Pruritus is the second name for this condition which is itchy soles of feet. There are a number of reasons for itchy soles some of them being athlete’s foot, dermatitis and systemic disease. These diseases range from mild intensity ones to severe ones. There medication and treatment depends upon the intensity at which it occurs. These itches can even develop rashes and can cover either a small area or the entire foot. Try to find the root cause before treating these itches. Itchy soles of the feet are very irritating and sometimes make walking very difficult sometimes.

The itch can start at any time of the day or even night. It is easy to handle the condition during the day as the brain is active and the urge to scratch can be controlled. Whereas, during the night, when a person is sleeping, the brain is in an active mode and uncontrolled scratching can lead to bruises, boils and wounds. However, unfortunately itching occurs more often during the night due to fall in adrenaline and cortisone levels and increase in histamine levels.

Click here to know about itchy lower legs

Causes of itchy soles of feet

  1. Exogenous causes
  • Lack of moisture in the skin is one of the most common causes of itchy soles. Problem of dry skin usually affects elderly people more than the young population. Skin drying is more frequent during the cold winter months than the summers.
  • Contact dermatitis is also one of the reasons of itchy soles. This skin reaction is caused due to over exposure to irritants or allergens such as cosmetics, detergents, soaps, lotion, poison ivy, etc. It might take few days to fade away only if it comes in contact with the allergen for a longer period of time.
  • A chronic skin condition characterized by itching, scaling and inflammation known as Palmoplantar Psoriasis also causes itchy soles of feet. The most recurring effect of this skin disease is the constant attacks of skin rashes on the soles. The foot becomes scaly and cracked and even pains and bleeds if the condition aggravates. Small red patches can be seen on the foot which makes walking difficult, causes emotional distress and obstructs a person to spend excess time on feet .
  • Lichen Planus is also an inflammatory skin condition. This condition is characterized by small itchy non infectious rashes that can appear either on one foot or both. These commonly emerge at night and give a sudden appearance and might last for several months. As the rashes subside dark brown or grey patches or spots are left behind which are more visible on dark skin.
  • Ring worm are very common disease appearing at any area of the feet. These are round scaly patches, usually delicate and itchy. It causes thickening, drying and toughening of the skin on the foot which are even discolored.
  • Candida Albicans cause a skin infection popularly known as candidal intertrigo. The infection is a diploid fungus growing as a filamentous cell or yeast which can have unpleasant affect on the soles of the feet. They are usually seen between the toes in the folds of the skin.
  • Tinea Pedis also known as Athlete’s Foot is a fungal infection that affects the foot. People suffering from athlete foot experience cracks between the toes initially and slowly the skin becomes itchy, moist looking and red at the bottom of the feet. The fissures become more painful if blisters form. It also results in a foul odor if the blisters are not treated because they release pus. This infection is contagious and generally found in locker rooms, pool areas and public showers and can also pass through sharing of towels.
  • Norwegian scabies also popularly known as scabies is a contagious infection affecting the feet. Scabies are caused by small mites who are not visible and burrow themselves deep under the skin. These cause excessive itching and its intensity increase during the night. Some common symptoms of this infection are red rashes, tiny blisters and in some cases burrow tracks.
  • Toxic shock syndrome also called Pitted Keratolysis is a bacterial infection usually seen in athletes. This infection is present on the soles and is usually caused from the foot being overexposed to hot moist environment. This occurs due to sweaty feet or unventilated shoes. Some symptoms of the disease are pain, itching and foul odor just like a smell of a rotting fish. You can even see lesions appearing which are white in color, covered by superficial pits which might attach to each other to form larger lesions.
  1. Endogenous causes

Endogenous causes include systematic causes, idiopathic causes, vitamin deficiency, Palmoplanter Hyperhidrosis and other genetic conditions like aquagenic pruritus, atopic dermatitis and senile pruritus. Leukemia, endocrine disturbances, chronic kidney failure, hypothyroidism, cutaneous mastocytosis, liver disease and cutaneous mastocytosis are few systematic causes of itchy soles. Few causes occur without any reasons which are commonly known as idiopathic causes. Itchy soles also occur due to vitamin deficiency such as Vitamin B6, B12 and B1. Even Crohn’s disease and HIV infections have symptoms of itchy soles of feet.

Other factors that can also cause itchy soles of feet are:

  1. Foot rashes
  2. Allergies
  3. Material of shoes
  4. Material of socks
  5. Insect, ticks or flea stings
  6. Exposure to poisonous plants like Poison Ivy
  7. Over sweating of the feet

Symptoms of itchy soles of feet

Itchy feet can be accompanied by several other symptoms like:

  1. Redness of the feet
  2. Unexplained inflammation of the feet and sole
  3. Blisters or boils
  4. Cracks in the skin and heels
  5. Peeling of the skin
  6. Bleeding due to excessive scratching
  7. Open sores

The best way to get relief from the listed symptoms is to abstain yourself from scratching the sole of your feet.

Diagnosing Itchy Soles of feet

If you are facing a tough time in dealing with itchy soles of feet and symptoms such as redness, bruises, skin flaking, dryness of the skin, allergies and inflammation then you must consult a podiatrist immediately. The itchy soles can be a result of an underlying fungal or bacterial infection that may require proper treatment.

Your doctor will conduct a physical examination of your feet and may also take a few samples of your skin to study the presence of foreign organisms that are causing the itch. On proper diagnosis, the doctor will then prescribe medication and a course of treatment depending on the cause.

Questions to ask your doctor

After the diagnosis are complete, below is a list of questions that you should definitely ask your doctor and may help you in the longer run:

  1. What material of socks should I wear?
  2. What material of shoes should I opt for?
  3. What can I do to stop myself from scratching my feet at night?
  4. What kind of creams do you recommend to keep the feet moisturised?
  5. Do you recommend any medicines that can ease itching?
  6. Should I also consult a dermatologist?

Treatment of itchy soles of feet

Treatment of itchy soles greatly depends on its cause. Depending upon the causes, there are several treatment and prevention methods that can be adopted.

  1. Home remedies

Home remedies are one of largest used way to getting rid of itchy soles.

  • Moisturizing your feet daily

Keep your feet moisturized daily. Number of creams are available in the market with moisturizing ingredients which can help you to take care of your dry feet and the feet sensitive to soap and detergents.

  • Applying Antihistamines

Antihistamines such as terfenadine or cetirizine can be used to get relieve from itching soles. Different types of antihistamines are available according to the intensity of itching and rashes.

  • Special creams

Topical doxepin hydrochloride 5% is a special cream to relieve itching soles. This cream gets absorbed and can even help you to get sleep. This cream cannot be used in those cases where a person has a tendency of urinary retention, anyone using antidepressants and people with narrow angle glaucoma.

  • Keep your feet clean and dry at all times. Opt for clean shoes and socks and do not wear a pair of socks more than once. Keep your nails short and trimmed to avoid any kind of fungal growth or infection.
  1. Medical choices

Medical treatment should always be taken under a guidance of expert. Make sure you consult a doctor or a physician before taking any medical treatment. There a number of specific skin treatments to treat itchy soles. You can even try treating the underlying disease to get rid of itchy soles. Phototherapy is also gaining popularity. In this the patients suffering from itchy soles caused due to Cholestatic liver disease or Naltrexone can get treated effectively. Vitamin injections can also be taken to cure itchy soles caused due to vitamin deficiency.

Rash Identification

Rash Identification

What is a rash?

A rash is a noticeable change in the color or texture of the skin. Different changes like scaliness, bumpiness, itchiness, redness can be easily noticed and are sometimes a matter of great concern.

Often when the sudden red, itchy patch is developed on the skin, individuals usually spend a lot of time wondering what the reason behind it is. In situations, when rash appears to get bigger or even worse then it leads you to wonder about the serious cause behind it. It also leads you to wonder whether you require medical treatment. Rash identification is hence a very important topic of discussion.

The rash is a result of the defenses of the body against a number of things like parasites, fungi or viruses. This leads to damage caused in the body or the skin. In some situations, rashes might even appear when the skin gets increasingly hot. Skin is prone to develop varied kinds of rashes with you ageing. This further helps you to narrow down the irritants, which is a cause of the discomfort.

Rash identification and Remedies

There are several type of rashes that can affect humans of all age groups, genders and races. Let’s take a look at different type of rashes that will help you in rash identification going forward:

1. Atopic dermatitis

atopic dermatitis picture

Picture: Atopic dermatitis child

The skin condition is extremely common which is referred to as eczema. This further causes the skin to become extremely itchy and inflamed. This chronic condition leads the way to affect the limbs, trunk along with the neck or face. The areas further flare up while subsiding when varied stimulants trigger your condition. Avoidance of triggers which include harsh detergents along with soaps or application of lotions or creams is designed for providing relief to individuals with eczema help in getting your relief. Your doctor helps in prescribing medicated creams which help in treating flare-ups.

2. Contact dermatitis

contact dermatitis picture

This produces an extremely dry and scaly rash, which burns or is even itchy. The rash being very itchy comprises of red blisters or bumps. The first type of rash caused can be transferred to others who meet it. Hence, it is extremely important to avoid the expose of others to the rash or the irritant, which causes it to appear. The second type is caused by an item like a nickel, cosmetics or latex, which paves the way to an allergic reaction caused on the skin. It is extremely essential to avoid the allergen, which caused the reaction in order to allow for the symptoms to heal.

Symptoms of contact dermatitis include:

  • Dry, flaky and scaly skin
  • Dry blisters
  • Oozing blisters
  • Severe itching
  • Redness of the skin
  • Inflammation of the skin
  • Sunlight sensitivity
  • Hives in some cases

It can be diagnosed by an allergy specialist using allergy testing and the itching can be controlled by using anti-itch creams like hydrocortisone cream and drugs like diphenhydramine.

3. Drug rash

drug rash picture

This type of rash is a result of an allergic reaction or can also be a side effect of a medication that is been taken. Antibiotics, medications of anti-seizure along with diuretics are particularly known to cause the reaction. In certain situations, it is more likely for you to develop a drug rash when the skin is exposed to sunlight. The rashes usually appear in the first week of you taking the medication. This leads to red spots, which can be spread across the body easily. This essentially disappears after individuals stop using the medication of stops after a few days. In situations, when you develop trouble breathing or have trouble with the organs when the rash appears, it is advisable to contact the emergency medical services at the earliest.

4. Heat rash

 heat rash picture

This causes when the sweat becomes obstructed which leads to small and red bumps which are known as prickly heat. This is more likely to cause when the weather is extremely humid when you wear excessive clothing or even when the clothing is very tight. The rash produces bumps, which are filled with fluid, but there might be cases when they do not have any other symptoms. This type of rash is not at all serious and can be easily treated when you change into proper clothing or even while you work to cool and dry the skin.

5. Intertrigo

intertrigo picture

This skin infection varied from person to person while appearing in areas of the body, which is warm and moist. The areas include under the breast, under the groyne or even on the abdomen. The areas develop a painful sensation, which causes the skin to crack or bleed while developing oozing sores. The symptoms make individuals more susceptible to bacterial and fungal infection.

6. Lichen Planus

lichen planus picture

The cause is unknown but is commonly associated with hepatitis C. Individuals having developed lichen planus leads to the development of reddish-purple bumps caused on the skin. These are extremely flat on the top and develop mostly on the neck, back, wrists, ankles, lower legs and various other spots on the body. Some people also develop this rash inside the mouth, genital area, scalp or nails. It mostly affects adults aged 30-75 and is common in middle aged people.

Several medications that are related to heart ailments, increased blood pressure and arthritis can cause lichen planus type rashes as a response to an allergic reaction within the body.

This rash can be diagnosed with the help of a biopsy and can be treated with antihistamines, steroid injections and medications that are used to suppress the immune system.

7. Psoriasis

psoriasis picture

This causes the skin to build up the rough and scaly skin as the life cycle has been increased. It leads to the occurrence of thick silvery scales, which are extremely dry while being itchy and inflamed. The severity of the condition varied from person to person. The patches are also extremely painful. Light therapy along with topical ointments help in reducing the lesions in order to help manage the symptoms.

8. Ringworm

ringworm picture

This fungal infection develops slightly raised rings, which are red, scaly and itchy. The ring continues to grow outward as the centre becomes less infected while spreading to other areas of the skin. The rash is very contagious and a prescription is required for an antifungal cream. It is contagious when it meets an object, which is contaminated by the fungus.

9. Pityriasis Rosea

 pityriasis rosea picture

This is a common skin rash that is mild in nature. It begins as big scaly pink patch of skin on the back of the chest and is often followed by the development of more patches on other parts of the body. The skin becomes itchy, red and inflamed. It is caused by a virus, the name of which is still unknown and the rash is not contagious in nature.

The rash is popularly known as Christmas tree rash and the patches form a pattern which is similar to that of a Christmas tree. Pityriasis rosea should be disappearing within a period of 6-8 weeks. On the other hand, it can also last for several months.

It can be diagnosed by physical examination and simple blood tests or skin biopsy. The rash usually disappears on it own and does not require treatment. However, oral antihistamines can provide relief from itching and irritation. Sunlight also comes very handy in treating the sores caused by the rashes. Creams are further available for relieving the itching that is caused by the rashes, which helps in the rashes to fade more quickly.

10. Shingles

shingles picture

This is a result of the virus caused by chickenpox. Individuals suffering from chickenpox have an inactive form of the virus waiting at the nerve cells. At the phase of adulthood, the virus can be activated which causes the rash to disappear. Over the time, small blisters, which look extremely similar to that caused by chickenpox, appear on the side of the body. These leave blisters, which break, and ulcer thereby creates a dry crust. The rash might fade away in a few weeks but when the breakout is severe, and then it is advised to visit the doctor.

11. Swimmer’s itch

swimmers itch picture

The condition, which is known as cercarial dermatitis, leads to an itchy or burning rash. This allergic reaction is caused due to contaminated water. This burrows in the top layers of the skin while leading to the appearance of blisters or small bumps. With each outbreak, varied symptoms might be caused due to exposing yourself to infected water.

12. Granuloma Annulare

granuloma annulare picture

It is a chronic skin condition that is accompanied by circular skin rashes along with red papules or bumps. It mostly affects children and people of young age and is more common in females. The cause of this rash is unknown and it is mostly found on the back of the hands, arms and feet. The characteristic feature of this rash is the formation of a small ring which can be mildly itchy. In severe cases, more than one ring can also be seen.

Related Post : To know about Maculopapular Rash please click here 

Ganglion Cyst

Ganglion Cyst Pictures 4

Ganglion Cyst Definition:-It is a round, fluid-filled sac of tissues that typically grows on tendons or joints of the body. It forms on the wrist or hand but can also develop on the ankle or feet in some cases.

Ganglion Cyst- An Overview

These are common lumps on the wrists or hands that occur in line with the tendons or joints. The most common locations of occurrence are top of the wrist, the palm side, the base of the finger on the palm side and the last joint of the finger. It is filled with clear fluid and looks like a ball filled with a thick, gluey and clear looking jelly like material.

These cysts are also called Bible cysts and are more commonly found in women than men. It does not affect very young or very elderly people and is mostly affects people in the age group 20-40 years.

Size of a Ganglion Cyst

The size of a cyst can range from just a few centimetres to a few inches. It can be as small as a pea or as big as a Ping-Pong ball.

Occurrence of a Ganglion Cyst

These cysts mostly commonly form on the back of the hand, joint of the wrist or palm side of the wrist. It can also occur on some other parts of the body like:

  • Base of the fingers
  • The fingertips i.e. the area below the cuticle. At this location the cyst is called the mucous cyst.
  • The outer portion of the knee or ankle
  • The thumb
  • The shoulder

Ganglion Cyst Causes

The exact cause of Ganglion cyst remains a mystery, however one theory suggests that sometimes trauma causes the tissue of the joint to rupture, forming little cysts that further join to form bigger cysts. This theory is associated with fault in the tendon sheath or joint capsule that forces the joint tissue to bulge out.

Symptoms of Ganglion Cyst

The symptoms these cysts are almost common in all patients. They include:

  • A visible lump
  • Pain in the affected area following severe trauma
  • Inflammation in the affected area and the surrounding area which appears suddenly and disappears with time
  • Discomfort in moving the joint
  • Numbness
  • A tingling sensation
  • Loss of mobility in some cases
  • Weakness in the adjoining fingers and joints

When to seek medical care?

If the Ganglion cyst is causing severe pain along with inflammation or you are having difficulty in moving the affected joint, then you must seek medical advice immediately for the right diagnosis and treatment.

Diagnosis of a Ganglion Cyst

A doctor can diagnose a ganglion cyst by studying the patient’s medical and family history and performing a physical examination. The doctor may ask you the following question:

  • When was the lump first seen?
  • Did you face any other symptoms along with the formation of the lump?
  • How severe is the pain?
  • Do you experience any loss in mobility?
  • How long has the lump been there?

The doctor may also ask you to undergo the following tests:

  • An ultrasound to determine whether the lump is actually a cyst filled with fluid or a solid mass. The ultrasound can also detect if any artery or blood vessel is causing the lump to form.
  • An X-ray or MRI may be required to study the position of the Ganglion cyst on the wrist.
  • A sample of the fluid filled inside the cyst may be taken.

Pilonidal Cyst Treatment

Most of these cysts do not require any treatment and disappear on their own; however there are a few treatment methods that can be helpful in removing the cysts completely.


Surgical removal of the Ganglion cyst is required if the lump is painful and affects the mobility of the joints or causes numbing or tingling sensation.


This includes inserting a needle inside the cyst and removing the fluid present inside. At the same time, a steroid chemical is also injected which acts as an anti-inflammatory dose. This treatment is highly effective in removing the cyst and restoring the mobility and function of the affected joint and surrounding tissues and tendons.

Home Remedies for Ganglion Cyst

There are numerous home remedies that are really helpful in getting rid of these unwanted balls of fluid. They are:

Black Tea Bags

One of the most effective ways to get rid of Ganglion cyst is using a black tea bag. The tea inside the bag is made up of an acidic compound that helps in healing the cyst and reducing the pain and inflammation.

How to use:

  • Take a black tea bag and soak it in warm water for 5-10 minutes.
  • Pull it out and remove the excess water by squeezing it.
  • Place the warm tea bag on the affected area for 10-15 minutes.
  • Repeat the procedure 2-3 times a day for best results.

Aloe Vera Gel

Aloe Vera gel contains amazing anti-inflammatory properties that speed up the healing process of a Ganglion cyst.

How to use:

  • Extract some gel from a fresh Aloe Vera leaf.
  • Gently apply the gel on the affected area.
  • Leave it untouched for 15-20 minutes.
  • Rinse the gel with tap water.
  • Repeat the procedure 2-3 times a day for best results.

Castor Oil

Castor oil contains anti-bacterial and antiseptic properties that help in fighting infections and stimulating the cyst’s healing process. It also helps in dealing with irritation and inflammation.

How to use:

  • Take a soft and clean cloth and dip it in castor oil.
  • Place it on the cyst for 15—20 minutes and do not apply too much pressure.
  • You can also massage this oil directly on the affected area.

Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple Cider Vinegar is a magic potion for skin infection and ailments and has powerful anti-microbial and antiseptic properties. It is one of the most effected home remedies for treating Ganglion cysts.

How to use:

  • Take a cotton ball and soak it in Apple Cider Vinegar solution.
  • Gently apply the cotton ball on the affected area.
  • Fix the cotton ball on the cyst with the help of a gauze or band aid.
  • Keep it there for half an hour.
  • Follow this procedure 2-3 times a day for best results.

Tea Tree Oil

Tea tree oil has fantastic antimicrobial and antiseptic properties and very useful for treating these cysts. They are also very helpful in treating pilonidal cysts.

For more information on pilonidal cyst click here

How to use:

  • Prepare a solution of two drop of tea tree oil with one teaspoon of coconut oil.
  • Gently apply the mixture on the cyst.
  • Use a gauze or band air to cover the cyst.
  • Follow this procedure 2-3 times a day for best results.


Ginger also contains anti-inflammatory properties that helps in easing the pain associated with the joint cysts. You can opt for ginger supplements or consume ginger tea 2-3 times a day to get relief.

How to use:

  • Cut ginger into small pieces.
  • Add these slices to a cup of hot water and place a tea bag.
  • Drink hot, 2-3 times a day for relief and best results.

Warm Compress

Frequently placing a warm compress on the cyst can help in melting it. It can also help is easing the pain and provides great relief from inflammation and pain during movement of the joint.

Mix of Epsom Salt, Glycerine and Borax

This mixture is very effective in healing Ganglion cysts and can provide relief from mild to even severe pain.

How to use:

  • Take three teaspoons of warm glycerine, 1/8 teaspoon of borax and half teaspoon of Epsom salt.
  • Mix all the content until completely dissolved.
  • Take a cotton ball and apply the mixture on the cyst gently.
  • Cover the area with a bandage or medical tape.

Change Your Shoes

If the cyst is on the foot, then you must change your shoes immediately. Do not wear shoes that compress the cyst in any way. It is best to wear flip-flops, floaters or peep toes. Avoid wearing shoes that restrict the movement of the feet and are made of non-breathable or synthetic fabric. Leather and polyester material can also irritate the Ganglion cyst.

Ganglion Cyst Pictures

Check out these pictures of ganglion cysts that will help you understand what they are and how they look.

Picture 1:- Ganglion cyst location

Ganglion Cyst Pictures 1


Pic 2 :-Picture of the hand and wrist after the Ganglion cyst surgery

Ganglion Cyst Pictures

Picture 3:- A closer look at a Ganglion cyst

Ganglion Cyst Pictures 2

Picture 4:- A Ganglion cyst on the foot

Ganglion cyst pictures 3


Pilonidal Cyst

pilonidal cyst pictures 4

Pilonidal Cyst Definition:- Sacs filled with hair and skin fragments that form at the end of the tail bone, at the top crease of the buttocks above the sacrum are called Pilonidal Cysts.

Related Post : Ovarian Cyst Definition and Causes

How does a Pilonidal Cyst occur?

A pilonidal cyst is an abnormal growth in the skin that usually contains hair and skin debris. It is located at the extreme end of the tail bone and at the top crease of the buttocks above the sacrum. It usually occurs when hair perforates the skin and gets embedded in it. The fluid filled sac which is formed can get infected and form an abscess which is often very painful.

It is more common in men than women and occurs at a young age.


30 people in every 100000 people face problems with Pilonidal cysts every year. It occurs predominantly in males who are in their late teens or early twenties. It rarely occurs at any age above 40 years. People who have a family history of Pilonidal cysts are at an increased risk of developing it.

Size of a Pilonidal Cyst

The size of these cysts can range anywhere from a few cm to inches. It can be as small as a pea and as large as a grape in size.

Pilonidal Cyst Picture

Pilonidal Cyst Symptoms

The extent and severity of symptoms depend from person to person. Some patients may be asymptomatic and the cyst can only be felt on touching it. It is when the cyst becomes infected, it starts showing signs and symptoms. Some of the symptoms that can be seen are:

  • Pain in the lower spine area or on the tailbone
  • Sudden warmness of the affected skin
  • Swelling surrounding the affected area
  • Seeping of pus or blood from the affected area because of opening in the skin
  • Redness of the affected area
  • Sudden onset of fever in some cases
  • Foul smell from the draining pus

Pilonidal Cyst Causes

The exact cause of these cysts is still not clear. However, some doctors believe that these cysts are present since the time of birth and arise from embryologic cells. They are caused by a combination of changing hormones, penetration of loose hair in the skin through dilation of hair follicles into the subcutaneous tissues. In response to the infiltrated hair, an inflammatory reaction causes a cyst like structure to form around the affected area and the skin debris.

In some cases, the cyst becomes infected and immediate hospitalization is required in such cases.

Related Post: Pilar Cyst Causes and Treatment

What are the risk factors associated with Pilonidal cysts?

There are certain factors that make you more susceptible to developing pilonidal cysts. They are:

  • Obesity
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Excessive body hair
  • Prolonged sitting
  • Taut or coarse hair
  • Male gender
  • Teenage or early twenties age group

When to seek medical attention?

Some pilonidal cysts are asymptomatic in nature whereas some get infected and become very painful. They need to be drained in order to be treated. If symptoms become worse over a period of time, you must consult a doctor and seek medical attention immediately.

Pilonidal Cyst Complications

Some complications associated with Pilonidal cysts are:

  • Abscess formation
  • Spreading of infection to other parts of the body rapidly
  • Squamous cell carcinoma ( skin cancer formation within the cyst)
  • Recurrence of the cyst

Diagnosis of a Pilonidal Cyst

A doctor can diagnose a pilonidal cyst by studying the patient’s medical and family history and performing physical examination. The doctor may look out for the following:

  • Inflammation, tenderness and redness between the cheeks of the buttocks below the tailbone and the surrounding area
  • Unexpected fever
  • Increased WBC or White Blood Cells level
  • Pus formation inside the cyst

Pilonidal Cyst Treatment

It is important to understand that antibiotics do not heal a pilonidal cyst. However, there are few procedures and treatments that can be used to treat them.

Incision and Drainage :- The most preferred technique for treating a pilonidal cyst is creating an incision and draining the cyst which included removing the hair follicles and debris that are a part of it. It is a very simple procedure that is done under the administration of local anaesthesia. Post-drainage, the treated area demand a lot of care which includes frequently changing the bandage until the cyst heals completely.

Marsupialization :- This procedure involves creating an incision, draining the pus, hair follicles and debris and sewing the edges of the fibrous tract to the edges of the wound to make a sac. This procedure minimizes the size and extent of the wound and requires at least six to eight weeks for the wound to heal completely.

Treatment of the infection :- If the cyst is severely infected, the doctor may prescribe a course of antibiotics. However, this will not heal the wound completely but will give you relief from pain and infection.

Phenol Injection :- This procedure involves administration of local anesthesia first, followed by a phenol injection which acts as an antiseptic for the cyst. This procedure may need to be repeated several times, until the cyst abrasion becomes stiff and closes. The only disadvantage being that the rate of re-occurrence is high in this case.

Pilonidal Cyst Home Remedies

There are several tried and tested home remedies that come handy in case of pilonidal cysts. Some of them are:

  1. Removing unwanted hair :- One of the most effective ways of staying clean from pilonidal cysts is maintaining personal hygiene and keeping the affected area clean at all times. Keep the area free from excess hair and remove unwanted hair from time to time. Use a sterilized shaving blade or a hair removal cream. Be very careful while shaving so that you do not end up cutting open the cyst.
  1. Cleaning the affected area regularly :- It is very important to clean the affected area in order to keep it free from dirt and toxins and keep it safe from infections. Clean the area around the cyst with soap or a cleansing agent prescribed by your doctor at least twice a day. Avoid using cosmetic soaps as they contain harsh chemicals that can increase irritation and infection.
  1. Avoid cosmetics and irritants :- Keep the area dry as much as possible and avoid using cosmetic powders, deodorants and perfumes. A moist environment can cause the infection to rapidly spread to other parts of the body.
  1. Opt for a healthy diet :- Include plenty of fruits and vegetables to keep up your immunity and stay safe from infections. Add foods like garlic, mushrooms, chicken, ginger, turmeric, honey, citrus fruits and vegetables and black pepper to your daily diet. Garlic has amazing antibacterial properties and can help in dealing with infection.
  1. Apply hot compress or heat pads :- Applying hot compresses or heat pads can help in bringing down inflammation and pain to some extent. Use a hot water bottle or a heating pad two to three times a day.
  1. Exercise :- Exercise regularly in order to maintain blood flow and increase blood circulation. Increased blood flow to the cyst area can help control infection and provide relief from pain, inflammation and redness.
  1. Epsom salt :- You can also sit in an Epsom salt bath for 15-20 minutes every day to get immediate relief from pain and swelling. Just add two teaspoons of Epsom salt in a tub of warm water and your Epsom salt bath is ready!
  1. Apple Cider Vinegar :- Apple cider vinegar being acidic in nature helps in removing excess toxins from the cyst. Soak a cotton ball in apple cider vinegar solution and dab it on the cyst without applying pressure. You can also wash the affected area with apple cider vinegar solution twice a day.
  1. Aloe Vera :- Aloe Vera is useful for fighting skin infections which makes it a good and effective home remedy for pilonidal cysts. Scoop out some gel from Aloe Vera leaves and blend with castor oil. Dab it on the cyst and leave for few hours. You can do this at least 3-4 times a day.
  1. Iodine solution :- Iodine solution helps in providing relief from pilonidal cyst. Soak a cotton ball in iodine solution and attach it to the cyst with a gauze or band aid.

Pilonidal Cysts-Pictures

Check out these pictures of pilonidal cysts that will help you understand them better.

pilonidal cyst pictures

Pilonidal cyst location

Pilonidal cyst pictures 1

Pilonidal cyst surgery

Pilonidal cyst pictures 2

Closer look at a pilonidal cyst

Pilonidal cyst pictures 3

Maculopapular Rash

maculopapular rash pictures 4

Maculopapular Rash Definition:- It is a skin rash characterized by redness of the skin and formation of red bumps on the flattened skin rashes. As the name suggests, it is derived from the fusion of two words, Macules and Papules.

Maculopapular Rash- An Introduction

A person having a Maculopapular rash has macules, papules or both on the skin. Macules are usually flat, small, non-elevated and faded spots on the epidermal layer of the skin and papules are small and puffed-up bumps on the skin. Both macules and papules measure less than 10 mm in size. Due to inflammation, the rash appears as reddish and raised bumps and can be categorized as acute, sub-acute or chronic.

This rash is connected to HIV infections but there are several other causes that can give rise to this rash on a person’s skin. It is also known as erythematous maculopapular rash due to the abnormal redness of the skin due to capillary congestion that is one of the symptoms of this skin disease.

Who is mostly affected by this condition?

There is no specific age, gender or race that is affected by this skin disease. These rashes can appear anywhere on the body including the face, chest or extremities. In case of children, the appearance of rashes is more noticeable on that palm and soles.

Maculopapular Rash Causes

Though HIV is the leading cause of Maculopapular Rash, there are several other causes that contribute to the development of this skin disease. Some of the causes are:

  • Dengue
  • Chikungunya
  • Syphilis
  • Scabies
  • Rubella
  • Type 1 HIV
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Measles
  • Low cholesterol
  • Medication

Let’s study more about each:

Dengue :- It is life threatening disease that can give rise to these rashes on the body. Dengue is caused by a mosquito bite and is marked by very high fever, acute joint pains and skin rashes. The infection becomes serious when the platelet level of the patient begins to drop, leading to bleeding in different organs.

Chikungunya :- Almost similar to Dengue, Chikungunya infection is also caused by a mosquito. The only difference being that Chikungunya is not marked by low platelet count and intensity of joint pains is much more and long lasting than Dengue. Other symptoms of this infection are high fever, joint pains that can last up to two years after the infection and rashes.

Syphilis :- It is another leading cause of Maculopapular Rash. It is a sexually transmitted disease which can lead to severe complications, if left untreated for a long period of time. If the rash is caused by Syphilis, it may develop into ulcerative blisters and become extremely painful.

Scabies :- It is a skin infection caused by a very tiny mite known as Sarcoptes Scabei. It is also known as a seven year itch. This condition can lead to Maculopapular rash which is often accompanied by bouts of severe itching resulting in skin irritation.

Rubella :- Also known as German measles, Rubella is a type of measles which is mild and lasts for about 4-5 days. It is a highly contagious infection, caused by the Rubella virus and occurs mostly in children and young adults.

Type 1 HIV :- The Type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus is the most leading cause of Maculopapular rash. It is because if this that this rash is also known as the HIV rash. It is one of the characteristic symptoms of Type 1 HIV infection.

Epstein – Barr virus :- It is also called the Herpes virus and is one of the eight known viruses in the Herpes family. It can be passed on from one person to another by the means of saliva like kissing or sharing a glass of water. This virus is responsible for skin rashes which later develop into blisters and high fever.

Measles :- It is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus. Symptoms include total body skin rashes, high grade fever, runny nose, sore throat and cough.

Low Cholesterol :- People with low cholesterol are at high risk of development of Maculopapular Rash due to excessive use of Vitamin B3 and Niacin by the body.

Medication :- Common drugs like Amoxicillin and day to day antibiotics can give rise to this rash. It can also be caused by medicines like Cefobid and Cefoperazone Sodium. Strong chemotherapy medicines can also cause Maculopapular Rash.

Some other rare causes of Maculopapular Rash are:

  • Adenovirus
  • Acamprosate
  • Herpes Virus 6
  • Hypersensitivity Vasculitis
  • Infectious Mononucleosis
  • Typhoid fever
  • Semliki forest fever
  • Roseola
  • Lassa fever
  • West Nile fever
  • Marburg virus
  • Adenovirus
  • Scrub typhus

Maculopapular Rash Symptoms

The symptoms are not just limited to its own but can also be a result of several other underlying medications or diseases.

Some of the possible symptoms of Maculopapular Rash are:

  • Appearance of papules that are small and elevated
  • Colour change of papules
  • Fever (low or high grade)
  • Itching
  • Burning of the skin
  • Formation of ulcerative blisters
  • Bruises

In cases where the rash is accompanied with irritation, it is known as Pruritic Maculopapular Rash.

Another condition in which a person may suffer from red rashes along with white spots is called Blanching Maculopapular rash.

Maculopapular Rash Diagnosis

Patient’s clinical history

The first and foremost thing that the doctor will do is ask your medical and family history. The patient might also have to answer a number of other questions like:

How did the rash begin?

When did the rash begin?

What were the other symptoms?

How often does the patient have this rash?

Was the patient suffering from an infection when the rash occurred?

If yes, what was the infection?

Physical examination

Along with this, the doctor may also conduct a detailed physical examination to ascertain if the rash is actually a Maculopapular rash or not.

Laboratory tests

Some lab tests that the doctor may ask you to undergo are:

  • Syphilis test
  • Pustule culture test
  • Cerebral-spinal fluid test
  • CBC or Complete blood count
  • Examination of ENT, joints, lungs, genitals and nerves

Based on clinical indicators

Maculopapular rash can also be diagnosed based on the patient’s symptoms.

  • If the rash appears on the face, it can be a sign of measles or Rubella
  • If the rashes are accompanied with headache and confusion, then the patient may be suffering from Gonococcemia
  • Joint inflammation may be indicative of Meningococcemia
  • Breathing problems may indicate Pharyngitis or Anaphylaxis

Maculopapular Rash Treatment

The selection of treatment primarily depends on the cause of the rash. Some of the treatment methods are:

Chloroquine :- If the cause of the rash is Chikungunya, then the patient is administered doses of chloroquine. Blood tests are carried out to ascertain of Chikungunya is the cause of the itchy rashes. Chloroquine is an anti-inflammatory disease that helps curtail the disease and reduce the symptoms.

Indicative treatment :- The first step is to figure out which disease is causing the rash. The causative agent is then treated with the apt medicines.

Pain-killers :- If the cause of the rash is Epstein – Barr virus, then the patient is given analgesics and pain-killers to help relieve the symptoms.

Blood transfusion :- If the cause is Dengue, then the patient is given oral therapy if the infection is mild. In case of severe infections, blood transfusion is also required.

UV and Gamma Radiations :- If other treatments are not effective, the last resort is to undergo ultraviolet or gamma radiation.

Maculopapular Rash Home remedies

There are certain tried and verified home remedies that can help in providing relief from Maculopapular Rash:

Aloe Vera :- Aloe Vera helps in soothing the skin and provides relief from itching and inflammation.

Turmeric & Honey :- A mix of turmeric and honey is very effective in the treatment of the rash. Turmeric has fantastic anti-microbial properties that help in providing relief from the severity of the rash.

Tea Tree Oil :- If the cause of the rash is a micro-organism, then tea tree oil is the best solution for getting relief.

Homeopathic Drugs :- Some homeopathic drugs like Sulphur and Apis Mel help is getting rid of these rashes.

Maculopapular Rash Pictures

This rash can affect different parts of the body. Let’s take a look at these pictures to see what Maculopapular rash looks like in different patients and on different parts of the body:

maculopapular rash pictures

Maculopapular Rash seen on the chest of a man

maculopapular rash pictures 3

maculopapular rash pictures 1

maculopapular rash pictures 2



nfantigo picture home page

Infantigo Definition: It is a bacterial skin infection that causes red sores that can break open, ooze fluid, and develop a yellow-brown coating. These sores can arise anywhere on the body.

Related Post: Lichenification Overview


What Is Infantigo?

Impetigo or Infantigo is a bacterial skin infection that can affect people of all age groups. It is mostly found to affect young children between the age group of two to six years.  It is extremely contagious and occurs as red sores on the face, especially around the nose and mouth. The sores can burst and become brown coloured crusts.

The main culprit of this contagious skin infection is staphylococcus aureus or staphylococcus pyogenes (very rarely). It is the most common bacterial skin infection is major parts of North America, Europe and Canada and in places which are warm.  It is hardly ever deadly and vanishes in a couple of weeks if proper treatment is administered on time.

Types Of Infantigo

It can be divided into three types:

1) Non Bullous Infantigo :- This is the most common type of Infantigo and is also known as Infantigo Contagiosa. In the initial stage, it comes across as a red sore near the mouth or nose which soon ruptures and oozes liquid. The sores later form brown-honey coloured crusts which leave permanent scars on the skin. They caused lot of itching and irritation but are less painful. Scratching the affected area and touching the other parts of the body with the same hands can cause contamination and spreading of infection. 

2) Bullous Infantigo :- This type of Infantigo is more prevalent in young children. It starts as small, liquid filled boils generally on the arms, legs and trunk which are surrounded by patches of red rashes or red skin. After they rupture, they leave yellow marks or scars on the skin.

3) Echthyma :- This type of Infantigo is more painful than the other two. The fluid filled sores or boils that normally appear on the legs and arms turn into ulcers and penetrate further into the dermis. After they rupture, they turn into thick, yellow scabs and leave behind scars on the affected area. It can also affect lymph nodes in the nearby area which can lead to lymph node swelling and fever.

Signs & Symptoms Of Infantigo

There are quite a few signs and symptoms that typically appear with the onset of infection. While Infantigo can affect any part of your body, it is common to have Infantigo on the face, especially around the nose and mouth.

There are common symptoms that are seen in case of non-bullous and bullous Infantigo:

  • The peculiar “Infantigo Rash” :- Red or pink bruises or sores appear near the mouth and nose. This is the very first evident sign and symptom of Infantigo.
  • Oozing liquid from the sores :- The sores soon burst and leak liquid and pus that further goes on to form thick brown colored crusts.
  • Excessive itching and irritation :- Infantigo is often very itchy and irritating in nature. It is important to beat the urge of itching and prevent yourself from further causing damage to the affected area and spreading the infection to other parts of the body.
  • Swollen lymph nodes :- If lymph glands are situated near the affected area, in some cases they may become infected and swell.
  • Fever :- If the lymph glands are involved and are swollen, the patient can experience bouts of fever.

Infantigo Causes

It is caused by bacteria that enter your bloodstream and create havoc by multiplying once they encounter favourable conditions for their growth. The two bacteria strains that can cause Infantigo are: Streptococcus pyogenes (strep) and Staphylococcus aureus (staph). Both bullous and non-bullous can occur due to Staphylococcus aureus and in very rare cases, Streptococcus pyogenes can cause non-bullous Infantigo.  These bacteria enter our skin through cuts, wounds or open sores and bruises.

Supporting Factors

Some factors that support the growth of bacteria and spreading of the disease are:

  • Poor hygiene
  • Anaemia
  • Warm weather
  • Low immunity

Transmission :- In case of Infantigo, contamination can happen through direct contact with sores or nasal discharge. The gestation period is 1–3 days after contact with Streptococcus and 4–10 days for Staphylococcus. Scratching may further spread the disease.

How Is Infantigo Diagnosed?

It is not very difficult to diagnose Infantigo and can be diagnosed by just examining the affected area. The doctor can inquire the patient about recent sores, bruises, rashes or blisters.

The doctor may also recommend further tests if:

  • Symptoms are very acute
  • Disease has spread to different parts of the body
  • Patient is not responding to any sort of treatment
  • The infection does not seem to go and keeps coming back

To check with bacteria is causing trouble; the doctor will gently wipe a crusted area with a swab and examine it.  The doctor can also take a sample of your mucous to see if the same if the source of infection.

Is Infantigo Treatable?

Yes, it is treatable and is like any other bacterial infection that can be treated with the help of antibiotics, both oral and topical.

Infantigo Treatment

Anti-microbial medicines or antibiotics form the base of Infantigo treatment. These drugs can be used in the form of oral tablets or in topical form like creams and lotions. The very first thing that you must do before applying a cream is bathe the affected area in warm water to remove germs and covering coatings.

If your infection is severe, then your doctor may prescribe anti-microbial medicines in oral form.

Topical Antibiotics :- They are applied on the affected area of the skin. Before applying it, the coated sore must be cleaned thoroughly so that the cream can penetrate deep inside the skin and attack the bacteria. It is greatly recommended that you use latex gloves while applying this cream to avoid further spreading of the infection to other parts of the body. After application wash your hands with medicated hand wash to get rid of any bacteria that you may have encountered while applying the anti-microbial cream on your wound. 

Oral Antibiotics :- These are usually prescribed when the infection is severe and refusing to go even after applying anti-microbial creams. The choice of drug depends on the type of bacteria causing the infection and other factors like patient’s general health, age, gender and response to certain drugs.

The course of anti-biotic may range from 5-10 days depending upon the severity of the infection. Remember to take a probiotic drink or tablet along with antibiotics to save your body from killing good bacteria. The infection will only get over once the antibiotic course is completed. Leaving the course in between will be of no help.

Home Remedies For Infantigo

Well, definitely yes! There are several home remedies and treatments that can help you prevent and cure Infantigo.

  • Maintain hygiene :- The only way you can stop this contagious infection from spreading is by maintaining hygiene and keeping the wounds clean. Gently wash the affected areas with mild soap and lukewarm water from time to time. As soon as you are done, sanitize your hands properly and ensure that they are germ free before you proceed to other activities.

Also it is very important to wash the patient’s bed sheets, blankets, towels and clothes daily.

  • Take care of your diet :- Avoid eating foods that increase skin irritation and inflammation. Take anti-inflammatory natural food that can help you in Infantigo. Turmeric is a very good anti-inflammatory food. You can make a juice of ginger, turmeric root, cucumber, carrot and mix it with coconut water to get relief from inflammation. Take the juice 2-3 times a day and you will definitely notice changes in the inflamed areas. You can also opt for garlic in your food or take garlic supplements to support your body in Infantigo.
  • Apply Tea Tree Oil :- Tea Tree Oil is a magical potion when it comes with bacterial infections like Infantigo. This miraculous oil is an anti-bacterial and helps a great deal in killing the infection. You can apply lotions or creams that have tea tree oil base or directly apply the oil by diluting it in a moisturizer and applying it on the affected areas.
  • Prepare your own antibiotic recipe :- You can simply make your own antibiotic by mixing a spoon of white polished vinegar in water and applying on the affected area for 10-15 minutes only.
  • Cover the affected area :- You can cover the infected area with a thin gauze or bandage to prevent further infection. It will also help you to overcome your urge to itch or scratch the affected area.

Infantigo Pictures

Check out these images below and this will help you identifying Infantigo sores and scabs.

infantigo pictures in cheek

Infantigo pictures

Infantigo pictures 2

Infantigo pictures 2

Infantigo pictures 3

Hopefully,  by now you must have an idea of what Infantigo looks like.


lichenification pictures health whoop

Lichenification Definition : It is a skin ailment that ensues in retort to extreme itching or rubbing of the skin, resulting in thick, leathery patches of skin. This happens because the external layer of skin naturally solidifies with the further irritation, and it often happens in cycle with eczema or other skin disorders.

Related Post: Red Moles in Skin

What Is Lichenification?

Excessive itching or scratching of the skin leads to skin disorders one of which is termed as Lichenification. It starts in counter reaction to extreme itching or rubbing of the skin, resulting in the formation of thick, leathery patches of skin. Sometime, the skin becomes shiny and starts oozing, whereas in some cases, it becomes dry and flaky. It mostly arises in areas of chronic irritation and is common in patients with skin disorders like eczema. Though is it not termed as a dangerous medical condition, it can cause severe pain and irritation. It further grows if you keep scratching or fiddling with the affected area. It does not affect any particular age group or gender and can happen to anyone.

The thickening of the skin is caused by deposits of dead skin cells that get stuck to the skin’s surface as a direct response of the body to excessive itching. Sometimes cracks which resemble a tree’s bark can form in the skin and the patches that form are usually five to six centimeters in length.

What Are The Common Areas That Are Affected By Lichenification?

Calf, elbow, the nape of the neck, scalp, inner thighs, ankles and genital areas are the common areas that are affected by Lichenification. Excessive itching in these areas can lead to the appearances of thick patches of dead skin cells.

Causes Of Lichenification

There are only a few main causes of Lichenification as stated below:

  1. It may arise from normal looking skin through lichen simplex chronicus, a skin disorder which is found in people with a form of atopic dermatitis which is already present somewhere else in the body.
  2. Lichenification may occur as a reason of an already underlying skin condition like eczema.
  3. It is common is patients with allergies and auto-immune disorders.
  4. It can simply arise as a result of excessive scratching or rubbing of pimples, herpes, dry spots and cuts or burns.

Lichenification often forms an itch-scratch cycle which is the main cause of misery. A person first scratches the skin excessively as a result of itching which leads to Lichenification and the patches formed by Lichenification further itch and cause pain. Breaking this cycle is often the key to the problem but it is not easy to figure out how.

Lichenification Symptoms

Below are the symptoms of Lichenification that can be found in almost all the patients suffering from this skin disorder:

  • Shiny or extremely flaky skin :- In some cases of Lichenification, the skin can become shiny and ooze, whereas in cases it can become extremely dry and flaky due to dehydration of the skin.
  • Leathery texture of the skin :- Your skin may acquire a gristly appearance that does not go even after treatment.
  • Darkening of the skin around the patches :- The skin around the leathery patches that form often becomes darker than other areas of the body. This darkening is even more apparent in people with a dark skin tone.
  • Intense itching at night time :- People with Lichenification feel an intense urge of itching, especially during the night time.
  • Extreme itching even after patches are formed :- It is not just the initial stage where itching can be felt, even after the Lichenification patches form, itching can increase.
  • Fiery sensation :- The burning sensation that comes along with itching is very difficult to tolerate. It feels like the skin is on fire.
  • Redness and Inflammation :- The initial stage can come with red rashes and inflammation of the skin before the leathery patches begin to form. 

When To Seek Medical Care?

If there is no end to your itching or development of abrasions on the body, then you must rush to a doctor. Also, if there are any signs of infection like pus, fever, pain or redness, then immediate medical intervention is required.

Lichenification Treatment

The first and foremost aim of the treatment is to break the monotonous itch- scratch cycle and give the patient a sigh of relief. If not treated on time, Lichenification can lead to permanent damage of the skin. The course of treatment may include the following:

  • Medication that include steroids and oral anti-histamines to help the boy cope up with pain and reduce its inflammatory response
  • Aggressive moisturizing techniques to keep the skin hydrated at all times. Dry skin leads to itching.
  • Corticosteroid creams or ointments
  • Injections into the lesions for timely repair of the skin
  • Ultraviolet light therapy
  • Sedative or anti-depressants for people suffering with stress caused due to Lichenification itching and pain.
  • A course of oral antibiotics if there is any sign of infection
  • Your dermatologist might also bandage the affected area to protect it from further itching and scratching 

What Are The Self Care Guidelines For Lichenifcaiton?

For patients who deal with Lichenification, day to day life is a big struggle and one must know how to cope up with it. Treatment can help you solve your problem to a certain extent but ultimately, you are your own saviour. You can follow the self-care tips below to help yourself during the course of your treatment:

  • Avoid scratching :- This is indeed, the most important action that you need to take. The more you scratch, the worse it will get. Try covering the affected area at night so that you do not scratch while sleeping.
  • Use moisturizers :- To keep your skin hydrated, it’s important that you pick the right moisturizers. Look for an oil based moisturizer or cream which are anytime better than watery skin lotions. Apply moisturizers as soon as you step out of the bathroom after a relaxing bath and avoid letting your skin become dry. Dry skin is a killer when it comes to Lichenification.
  • Use anti-fungal creams :- It is important that you occasionally use anti-fungal creams to avoid any fungal infection on the affected area.
  • Apply antibiotic creams on cracks and cuts :- Cuts and cracks can provide as easy entrance to bacteria and lead to severe infection of the affected skin patch. To avoid this, apply anti-bacterial creams prescribed by your doctor and keep the patch covered and as clean as possible.

Lichenification Pictures

Browse through the pictures below to understand how Lichenification patches look like.

Picture : In leg

lichenification picture

Pic: In throat

lichenification pictures

Image: in leg

lichenification picture

lichenification picture 2

lichenification picture 2