4 Easy and 4 Home Made Fruit Fly Traps

Fruit fly infestation is one of the most annoying situations for farmers and fruit-sellers all over the world. It is important to understand where they come from, their behavior and ways to get rid of them, of which a fruit fly trap is the best bet. In the later part of this article, you will learn how to make different fruit fly traps.

What are Fruit Flies?

Fruit flies are small, yellow colored flies that are a part of a large family of flies which include approximately 3000 species. These flies are harmless and do not pose any threat to an individual.

They are found in places like houses, restaurants, vegetable markets, supermarkets and wherever fruits and vegetables start rotting and fermenting. Adult fruit flies are around 0.13 inches long and have big red eyes. The younger members of the family are comparatively smaller in size and yellowish in color. In the case of adult flies, the front portion of the body is tan, and the back portion is blackish-brown in color.

Fruit flies lay their eggs near rotting or fermenting food items and materials that are moist in nature. On birth, the larvae get their nutrition from the rotting and fermenting food where they are born. The reproduction potential of this flies enormous, and they can lay around 500-600 eggs at a time, and the complete life cycle from birth to adulthood is accomplished in a week’s time, and their entire life span is around two weeks.

Not just rotted and fermented fruits and vegetables, fruit flies are easily attracted the over ripened fruit and vegetables also. They breed in damp places like garbage piles, drains, trash cans and bottles or dirty clothes and rugs. Infestation of these flies can also begin from previously infested fruits and vegetables that were brought inside the house. They are highly annoying insects’ behavior wise and have great potential to contaminate food material with bacteria and other harmful organisms, and the best way to get rid of them is creating a fruit fly trap.

Where do fruit flies come from?

Fruit flies can come to your home if you have some overripe fruits and vegetables on the kitchen shelf. They seek fermented food material, especially wine and beer.

Types of Fruit Flies

In all, there are five types of fruit flies:

  1. Citrus Fruit Flies :- These fruit flies have a higher affinity for citrus fruits and vegetables that are nearing ripening and fermentation. They are different from the fruit flies found at home and belong to the family Tephritidae, unlike house fruit flies which belong to the biological family, Drosophila.
  2. Mexican Fruit Flies :- These fruit flies are highly attracted fruits like mango and grapefruit. They measure 8-12 mm in size, and their bodies are lean and yellowish-brown in the shade.
  3. Olive Fruit Flies :- The fruit flies breed in various parts of the Mediterranean basin, including many areas of Africa and India. They measure approximately 5-6 mm in length and have huge wings that measure up to 10 mm. The wings have random brown spots and the body black in color which a silver lining on the surface accompanied by three parallel black stripes.
  4. Caribbean Fruit Flies :- These fruit flies are widely known for causing considerable damage to tropical fruits like peaches, oranges, guavas, papaya, mango, dragon fruit, cherries, and loquat. They are twice the size of a common housefly, and the body is yellowish-orangish-brownish in color and have no markings like stripes or spots.
  5. Western Cherry Fruit Flies :- These fruit flies prefer wild and domestic cherry trees and lay their eggs beneath the surface of the cherry fruit’s skin. The adult flies are around 0.2 inches long and have white and black parallel bands on the abdomen. The female flies are slightly larger than their male counterparts.

4 Killer Ways To Get Rid of Fruit Flies with Fruit Fly Trap

The best and most efficient way to deal with fruit fly infestation is a Do-It-Yourself or DIY Fruit Fly Trap. There is not just one, but several ways to build your own Fruit Fly Trap, let’s see how!

1) Paper Funnel Fruit Fly Trap

Follow the step below to create an effective fruit fly trap using a bottle and paper!

  • Choose a tall bottle of wine or champagne, a tall jar or a tall flower vase
  • Add some bait for the fruit flies- since they feed on anything that is rotting, fermenting or sugary, you can add any fruit juice or sweet items or some rotting fruit pulp. You can also add overripe fruit bits, honey syrup, maple syrup, corn syrup, soy sauce, apple cider vinegar or wine.
  • Take a piece of paper and roll it to create a funnel shape and place it on the opening of the bottle. A funnel with a minuscule opening will allow the flies to fly inside the bottle, but will not allow them to fly out. Ensure that the tip of the funnel does not touch the food material inside the cylinder. Any paper can be used to create the funnel. However, the thicker it is, and the better it will be.
  • Gently pick up the fruit fly trap and place it in the infested area.
  • Leave it overnight, and you will be happy to see a large number of fruit flies stuck in the fruit fly trap the next morning.
  • Get rid of the trapped flies using a mixture of dish soap and lukewarm water. The soap decreases the surface tension of the water and causes the fruit flies to drown. Rinse the jar thoroughly once you remove all the flies and reuse to create another effective fruit fly trap.

fruit fly trap

Image: A funnel fruit fly trap with tempting bait for the fruit fly

2) Plastic Wrap and Bowl Fruit Fly Trap

Follow the step below to create a live fruit fly trap using a bowl and plastic wrap!

  • Select a container which is large or medium in size
  • Add some sweet bait at the bottom of the bowl for the fruit flies- it can be a liquid, pulp, fruit skin or pieces of fruit but the food material should cover at least an inch from the base of the bowl. You can use the following as sweet, tempting bait for the flies: a piece of an overripe skinless fruit like orange, banana or mango, a mixture of white wine and coriander seeds, a mix of honey, sugar, and vinegar.
  • Once the contents are setup, tightly cover the bowl with a plastic sheet.
  • Using a fork, create several holes in the plastic cover and keep them as small as possible to trap the flies and not allow them to escape from the fruit fly trap.
  • Leave it overnight, and you will be pleased to see a large number of fruit flies stuck in the fruit fly trap the next morning.
  • Take the fruit fly trap outside and pour a mixture of dishwashing soap and lukewarm water to get rid of the fruit flies.
  • Rinse the bowl thoroughly and use it for the next fruit fly trap.

bowl and plastic wrap fruit fly trap

Image: A bowl and plastic wrap fruit fly trap with piece of banana and wine as bait

3) Merry Fruit Fly Trap

Fruit flies are highly attracted to red wine and can easily get intoxicated with it. They will either drown in the fruit fly trap or can be removed using additional techniques like a freezer or dish washing soap and lukewarm water.

Follow the step below to create a luring fruit fly trap using a red wine and a bottle!

  • Select a bottle with is not very tall or very short
  • Add some red wine to the bottle such that it covers 1-2 inches from the base of the bottle
  • Place it near the infested area
  • The fruit flies will rush to taste the red wine and end up drowning or getting stuck in this merry fruit fly trap
  • The remaining flies can be removed using a mixture of dish washing soap and lukewarm water as mentioned in the earlier methods

wine bottle fruit fly trap

Image: A vine bottle fruit fly trap

4) The Trusted Milk Fruit Fly Trap

A combination of milk, black pepper, and raw sugar can do wonders for those annoyed with fruit flies infesting their kitchens!

Follow the step below to create a simple fruit fly trap using a bowl, milk, sugar and pepper!

  • Add one glass of milk, 150 grams raw sugar and 60 grams of black pepper (ground) in a saucepan and simmer for about 10-15 minutes
  • Pick a bowl which is shallow and transfer the mixture into it
  • Place the bowl near the infested area
  • Fruit flies will quickly be attracted to the mix and will drown as soon as they enter the space
  • The remaining flies can be removed using a mixture of dish washing soap and lukewarm water as mentioned in the earlier methods

milk-sugar-pepper fruit fly trap

Image: A milk-sugar-pepper fruit fly trap

4 other methods to get rid of the flies apart from the Fruit Fly Trap

Yes! There are other ways of removing fruit flies from your surrounding apart from the Fruit Fly Trap. They are:

  1. Sprays :- You can use fruit fly sprays available in the market or create your own. Windex or Clorox sprays can be used to kill these pests. You can also create your spray using a spray bottle and 70% rubbing alcohol. The alcohol reacts on them instantly and acts as a very effective disinfectant. 90% alcohol can also help in getting rid of the fruit fly eggs and larvae.
    • Pyrethrin spray is another fantastic insecticide which can kill fruit flies, the only drawback being that it does not affect the eggs.
    • An essential oil spray is also helpful. Fruit flies hate the smell of selected essential oils that are pleasing to humans. The oil will help in keeping the flies away from your surroundings. All you have to do is add some water to a spray bottle and 5-10 drops of peppermint, tea-tree oil, lemongrass or eucalyptus oil. Sprinkle it near the fruit baskets, kitchen drains, and sinks to keep the fruit flies away. An essential oil trap is also a kind of fruit fly trap.
  2. Pest Control Treatment :- Though fruit fly trap is the most efficient self-method to get rid of these pests, professional pest control treatment can also help enormously. Fruit fly control experts visit your home and spray select insecticides and medicines that are meant to get rid of fruit flies accurately.
  3. Keep Your Surroundings Clean :- As you know that fruit flies breed in areas that are damp, unclean and contain rotting fruits and vegetables, it is important that you locate such areas and clean them as there are high chances of fruit fly eggs present in such places. Avoid keeping overripe fruits, open garbage bags that contain rotting fruits and vegetables, beer cans or wine bottles and clear your kitchen sink drains as frequently as possible.
  4. Discard Damaged Fruits :- Once you’ve brought the oranges, mangoes, cherries, peaches and other fruits inside your kitchen, inspect them thoroughly and dispose of them if there are signs of any damage. It is important that you arrange them outside your house as they can potential carriers of fruit fly eggs.

Do Fruit Flies bite people?

The common fruit flies or the household fruit flies belong to the biological family Drosophila. These flies do not feed on human blood since they do not have any biting mouth parts. They have a very short lifespan and are not harmful in behavior.

How can Fruit Fly Infestation be prevented?

The best way to avoid fruit fly infestation is to abolish the source of affinity.

  • Fruits and vegetables that have ripened should be consumed, disposed of outdoors or refrigerated.
  • Damaged or cracked portions of the fruit should be cut away as there are high chances of fruit fly larvae being present in these areas
  • Recycling bin should frequently be emptied and cleaned
  • Beer and wine containers should be tightly sealed
  • House windows and doors should be tightly closed to keep the flies from entering your house
  • Fruit fly trap should be kept ready as soon as you suspect the presence of the first few fruit flies in your kitchen

Fruit Fly Pictures

fruit fly

Image: A closer look at a fruit fly

Fruit fly infestation

Image: Fruit fly infestation on oranges and apple

Red Bananas

Red Banana

Red Bananas are the member of the banana family which is smaller is size as compared to normal bananas. The skin of the red banana is red-brownish is colour and the colour of the inner flesh can range from off-white to cream and even light pink in some cases.

The touch and feel of a red banana is softer when compared to a normal banana and is also sweeter to taste.

Information about Red Bananas

History :- Red bananas are inherent to India and Southeast Asia. Through various trade routes, they have been transported to different sub-tropical and tropical regions where they have grown. Some of those regions are Southeast Asia, New Zealand, Australia, Pacific Island area and South Africa.

Availability :- Red bananas are easily available round the year and during all the seasons.

How to tell when red bananas are ripe?

A Red Banana is ripe when they have a reddish-brown texture and should be kept out of the refrigerator to avoid spoilage.

Taste :- Red bananas are smaller and heartier than an average normal banana. It should be consumed when it is ripe else it will taste like a dry and flaky starch like substance. When it is perfectly ripe, it will have a thick, bright reddish-brown skin and creamy inner flesh. The taste of this beautiful creamy flesh is sweet and soft.

Nutritional Value of Red Bananas

If you are looking to add some tasty, nutritional food to your fruit platter, then nothing can beat a Red Banana.

They are available all year round and can be easily found in local markets. They can be used as a replacement for the normal bananas without sacrificing on the nutritional quotient.

  • Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fat :- An average Red Banana weighing 100 grams contains 90 calories and zero fat content. It is approximately 24 grams of carbohydrates which is roughly 7-8% of the recommended daily carbohydrate dose.

Out of these 24 grams, 16 grams is sugar content while 1 gram each is dietary fibre and protein.

  • Essential Vitamins and Minerals :- The peel or the skin of the Red Banana is the powerhouse of essential vitamins and minerals. A 100 gram Red Banana has 3% of your daily recommended dose of Vitamin A and 15% of Vitamin C. Though it does not contain any amount of calcium or sodium, it does contain iron which is essential mineral for the body. Red Bananas are also a great source of Potassium and Vitamin B6.
  • Sugar Content :- Red Bananas are a good source of beta-carotene and sugars obligatory for the energy required by the body for day to day activities. All kinds of bananas contain three types of sugars: Fructose, Glucose and Sucrose which provide immediate and maintainable energy for the body.

How to pick the perfect Red Bananas?

Picking the perfect Red Banana is a not an Einstein’s job! Look for bunches that are firm and have no cuts, marks, bruises or spots on the peel. Pieces with a reddish-brown look are ripe and good for immediate consumption.

How to store Red Bananas?

Putting the bunch of Red Bananas in the refrigerator is not a good idea as it can lead to spoilage. Keep them out in room temperature so that they can ripen with time, if required.

Benefits of Red Bananas

Red Bananas are highly nutritious in nature and contain adequate amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, mineral and sugars for the body. There are a variety of benefits of this nutritional fruit for the human body. They are:

  • Weight Loss :- Red Banana is calorie wise low and has a low glycaemic index. These values combined, make it a wonderful delight for weight loss. One Red Banana can fill your stomach for a meal without having hunger pangs for several hours. They can help you in following a nutritional diet plan and are a blessing for those who wish to lose weight.
  • Relief from Constipation :- Since Red Bananas are a great source of dietary fibre, they can do wonders when it comes to getting relief from constipation. A single banana can compensate for the body’s daily requirement of dietary fibre. It is therefore highly effective in patients with piles which is caused by irregular bowel movements and chronic constipation disorder.
  • Metabolism and Digestive Health :- Dietary fibre also helps in keeping metabolism intact and improves digestive health.
  • Heart Diseases :- The high fibre and potassium content in Red Bananas make them a power dose for those who are at a risk of heart disease or heart ailments. Potassium is a must have for the body as it regulates electrolyte levels and fluids in the body. It also plays a vivacious role is maintaining the heart muscles and pulls the blood to various parts of the body. It is a very good remedy for Angina Pectoris which is also a symptom of a possible coronary artery disease. Here’s how it helps:
    • Take 20-30 grams of honey and 300-350 grams of Red Banana flesh
    • Mix them together in a bowl
    • Eat once a day on empty stomach for 15-20 days

You will surely notice relief from angina pain.

  • Anaemia :- Being a good source of iron and Vitamin B6, Red Bananas help in beating deficiencies like Anaemia. It helps in maintaining red blood cell metabolism and producing haemoglobin.
  • Enhances Immunity and Prevents Cancer :- Red Bananas contain Vitamin and a colourful substance that helps in boosting immunity and preventing cancer. They also contain anti-oxidants that combat free radicals, thereby further reducing the risk of cancer.
  • Helps in Quitting Smoking :- The potassium and magnesium content in Red Bananas help in combating with nicotine withdrawal. It fights off the side effects caused by cessation of nicotine from daily routine and reduces nicotine craving. This helps a great deal in coping up with the stress and anxiety which a person goes through after quitting smoking.
  • Quick Relief from Heartburn :- The antacid effect of a Red Banana makes it a great remedy for heartburn caused by acidity. Daily consumption of Red Bananas can really help in getting over reflux diseases and heartburn.
  • Relief from Frequent Urination :- If you are troubled with frequent urination and wake up several times during the night to ease yourself, then Red Bananas are a good remedy for you.
    • Take 150 grams of Red Banana pulp, a spoon of brown sugar and 30-40 ml of amla juice
    • Mix the three ingredients together in a bowl and eat two times a day for best results

Try this for at least 10 days.

  • Red Banana for Fertility :- Red Bananas work wonders when it comes to fertility. It helps in increasing the sperm count in men. Vitamin B and Bromelain enzyme found in Red Banana are responsible for the increase in sperm production.
  • Leucorrhoea :- Combining milk with a tea spoon of honey with a Red Banana can help in dealing with Leucorrhoea.
  • Morning Sickness :- A Red Banana a day can keep morning sickness away! It comes as a rescue for pregnant ladies that have a tough time with early morning sickness during pregnancy.
  • Pica :- Pica is a condition in which pregnant women and children get the urge to eat soil or clay. Red Bananas are very helpful when it comes to Pica.
  • Benefits of red banana for Skin  :- Red Banana comes with nutrients like vitamin A, C and B6 which are essential for a healthy glowing skin. High anti-oxidant content guards the skin from oxygen free radicals which are harmful and prevents skin ageing. Also, because of high water content, Banana helps in skin hydration and prevents it from drying and flaking. You can make a face pack and apply for fabulous results. All you have to do is:
    • Mash a Red Banana pulp
    • Add a teaspoon of honey and lemon juice each
    • Mix them well and apply it on your face
    • Make sure you cover your entire face, including the neck area
    • Leave it for 20-30 minutes
    • Wash with plain or lukewarm water

Repeat the process weekly for stunning results.

  • Red Bananas Hair Benefits :- Potassium, natural oils, vitamins and carbohydrates present in these bananas provide nourishment to the hair making this soft and lustrous. They also guard the hair’s natural elastic property and growth of split ends which result in hair breakage. Red Banana is also a good remedy of tackling dandruff and dryness of the scalp. You can make a hair mask and apply it for surprising results. All you have to do is:
    • Take a Red Banana and mash it well
    • Mix the mashed product with 1 tablespoon of coconut oil, olive oil and almond oil
    • Apply the mixture on your hair and scalp evenly
    • Make sure you cover the hair ends
    • Wash with plain or lukewarm water after 30-40 minutes

Avoid using hair dryers or hair styling appliances immediately.

  • Red Bananas for Babies :- It forms a perfect meal for new born babies as it contains essential nutrients required for the baby’s development and also tastes sweet.

Is Red Banana safe during Pregnancy?

Yes! Red Bananas are absolutely safe during pregnancy. They keep the nutritional quotient at bay in a pregnant women’s body and also helps in dealing with pregnancy effects like morning sickness.

Is there any condition when one should not consume Red Bananas? 

Patients who are restricted from consuming Potassium should keep away from Red Bananas, especially those who are suffering from kidney failure or other kidney disorders.

Pictures of Red Bananas

Here is how a Red Banana looks:

Red Banana plant

Picture 1: Red Banana plant

red banana tree

Picture 2 :- Red Banana tree

red bananas ripe

Picture 3 : A beautiful bunch of naturally grown red bananas ripe

red banana fruit

Picture 4 : Red Bananas inside view

Breast Cyst

Breast Cyst Pictures 4

Breast Cyst Definition and Meaning: – A breast cyst is a fluid filled pouch inside the breast which is usually non-cancerous in nature.

What is Breast Cyst ?

It is a sac inside the breast which is filled with fluid. A woman can have a cyst in one breast or even in both. These fluid-filled sacs are often round or elliptical in shape and have dissimilar edges. It is often described as a water-filled resin or a water filled-balloon but is also hard at times.

Most breast cysts develop rapidly and stay fixed at a particular size. They do not grow with time. In very rare cases, the cysts shrink or grow in size with time. These cysts are more prominent in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women undergoing hormone therapy and women between the ages of 35 to 55; however women of any age can get these cysts.

cysts in breast are usually non-cancerous in nature and are not harmful; however some cysts cause discomfort and pain.

Breast Cyst Size

The size of a cyst in breast can range from the size of a small pearl to the size of a golf ball. In some cases, the cyst grows up to mere centimeters, while in some cases it can grow up to 4-5 inches in diameter.

Breast Cyst Symptoms

cysts in breast can be noticed in one or both cysts and signs and symptoms vary from one patient to another. Some of the symptoms that can be seen are:

  • A soft, easily movable lump elliptical or round lump with irregular edges in one or both the breasts
  • Nipple discharge that may be brownish, yellowish or clear
  • Tenderness in the area of the cyst
  • Mild to severe pain the area of the cyst
  • Increase in the size of the breast cyst before the onset of menstruation or tenderness of the breast
  • Sudden reduction in the size of the cyst or tenderness in breast after the period is over
  • Numbness of the affected area
  • Discomfort

Breast Cyst Causes

The main cause of formation of a cyst in the breast is fluid accumulation in the glands of the breast.

Each of the breasts contains nodes of glandular tissue, arranged like flower petals. The nodes are further divided into nodules that yield milk during breast-feeding and pregnancy. The tissue that helps the breast in retaining the shape is made up of fibrous connective tissues and fatty tissues. Breast cysts form as a result of fluid collection in the glands inside the breasts.

Types of Breast Cyst

Based on their size, cysts can be categorized as:

  1. Micro cyst
  2. Macro cyst

Micro Cysts :- These cysts are very tiny and cannot be felt easily. They are often visible during tests like mammography and ultrasound.

Macro Cysts :- These cysts are large in size and can grow up to 2.5 inches in size. They can cause pain by exerting pressure on nearby breast tissues.

Which doctor treats a Breast Cyst?

The first doctor that you will visit, after discovering your breast cyst will most likely be your general physician or family doctor. However, after diagnostic tests and other findings, you may be referred to a specialist or a gynecologist for further treatment.

When to visit a doctor?

A healthy breast tissue often feels like a nodule or a lump. If you feel that a new breast lump, which can be easily felt and noticed, has formed and is causing discomfort and pain, then you must consult your doctor immediately. Also, a breast cyst that persists after your period is over should also be checked by a doctor.

How to prepare yourself for the appointment?

Your first appointment can take place at your general physician’s clinic. Follow the simple to-do steps below to have a perfect appointment session:

  • Note down your symptoms including those which are not directly related to the breast cyst
  • Prepare a short summary of your medical history and on-going treatment and medications (if any)

Make a list of questions that you may want to ask your doctor about your breast cyst like:

  • What caused the cyst to grow?
  • Does the presence of the cyst increase my risk of breast cancer?
  • What sort of tests will I be asked to undergo?
  • Does the cyst required treatment?
  • Are there any points that I have to follow?

Meanwhile, also be ready to answer the following questions that your doctor may ask you:

  • When did you first notice the symptoms?
  • When did you first notice the breast lump?
  • Is it painful?
  • If yes, what is the severity of the pain?
  • What sort of changes do you notice during your periods?
  • Are you periods normal/heavy?
  • Are the symptoms present in both the breasts?
  • Do you have a family history of breast cancer?
  • Do you have discharge from your nipple? If yes, is it on both the sizes?
  • What is the color of the nipple discharge?
  • Did you ever have a mammogram or a breast ultrasound?
  • Have you ever undergone a breast biopsy?

Breast Cyst Diagnosis

Once your doctor is sure that you have a breast lump, you will be asked to undergo proper screening which may include a series of diagnostic tests and findings. Your doctor may ask you questions related to your family history, past medical problems and list of current medications. Based on the results of initial medical tests and examination, your doctor may recommended further testing that may include the following:

Breast Examination :- Your doctor will physically survey your breast lump. Since the physically examination is not sufficient to arrive at any conclusion, other diagnostic tests like mammography, breast ultrasound, fine needle aspiration or biopsy may be required.

Mammography :- A mammography is a breast x-ray which is used to diagnose diseases of the breast like breast cancer. It is also used to find lumps in the breast or a breast cyst.

Breast Ultrasound :- A breast ultrasound is used to determine if the cyst in the breast is filled with fluid or is solid. A fluid-filled lump is conclusive of a breast cyst. A solid lump is usually a benign lump like fibro adenoma or in rare cases, breast cancer. Once the lump is detected, your doctor may ask you to undergo fine needle aspiration or biopsy.

Fine Needle Aspiration :- During this procedure, the doctor will insert a thin needle in the breast lump and pull out fluid. It is carried out under the guidance of ultrasound for apt placement of the needle. If the fluid is successfully aspirated and the sac shrinks, your doctor may diagnose a breast cyst instantly.

The following can happen during fine needle aspiration:

  • If the fluid is clear and the sac shrinks immediately, then further testing is not required.
  • If the fluid looks brownish or bloody in colour and the sac does not shrink even after liquid is withdrawn, you may be asked to undergo further testing and consult a radiologist to rule out breast cancer.
  • If no fluid is pulled out and the breast sac appears solid, it may be checked for dead cells (fine needle aspiration biopsy) to rule out cancer. You may also be asked to undergo other tests like mammogram and breast ultrasound.

Breast Cyst Treatment

Once the doctor confirm the presence of a cyst in your breast, further treatment may not be required. However, if the cyst becomes painful and causes discomfort, your doctor may recommend one of the following lines of treatment:

Fine Needle Aspiration :- This method is also considered as a treatment method, if your doctor is successfully able to withdraw fluid from the cyst and shrink it.

In case of some breast cysts, more than one aspiration sessions may be required.

Hormone Therapy :- Use of hormone therapy or birth-control pills may prove helpful in preventing more cysts for forming and recurring.

Surgery :- If the breast cyst is very large in size, extremely painful and contains bloody fluid, then surgery may be required. However, surgery is required in very rare cases.

Breast Cyst Home Remedies

There are numerous home remedies that are really helpful in getting rid of uncomfortable lumps in the breast. Some of them are:

Essential Oils Hot Compress :- One of the most effective ways of getting rid of breast cysts is hot compress of essential oils.

How to use:

  • Take 9-10 drops of lavender essential oil and 3-4 drops of chamomile oil
  • Mix them together in warm water
  • Dip a clean cloth in this solution
  • Gently compress the affected area
  • Repeat 2-3 times a day to get rid of the cysts and avoid recurrence of more cysts in your breast.

Rice Hot Compress :- This is another popular home remedy for breast cysts which is known to work well in most of the cases.

How to use:

  • Put a spoon on uncooked rice in a sock and seal the open end by tying it
  • Warm this sock over a pan
  • Gently apply the rice compress on the affected breast
  • Repeat 2-3 times a day to get rid of the cysts and avoid recurrence of more breast cysts

Cabbage Leaves :- Over the years, cabbage leaves have proved to be a very helpful remedy for treating breast cysts. It helps in reducing the size of the breast cyst and pain.

How to use:

  • Take two clean cabbage leave
  • Cut them according to the size of your breast
  • Tie them over the breast
  • Leave for 30-45 minutes

Reduce Salt Intake :- Since salt contains sodium which has water retention properties, it is recommended to reduce your salt intake to reduce the size of the breast cyst and get rid of it. Avoid salty food like chips and other canned food.

Avoid Tea and Coffee :- Tea and coffee contain methylxanthines which chemical substance that lead to the formation of breast cysts. They are also found in some chocolates and chocolate drinks. In order to prevent cysts from forming, it is highly recommended that you avoid both of them. Also, additional caffeine content in coffee can further lead to discomfort it you already have a cyst. This applies for all other cysts like ganglion cyst, sebaceous cyst etc.

Apply Heat Compress :- You can use hot water bottles or heating pads to provide relief from pain. Also, warm water showers can be really helpful in reducing pain and discomfort. This remedy is also helpful in case of pilonidal cysts and ganglion cysts.

Wear a Proper Bra :- In case of painful breast cysts, wearing a good bra with proper breast tissue support can be of great help. Opt for a good quality bra which provides proper support to the breast tissues and avoid stretching them. Tight and underwired bras can cause the breast cyst to become more painful.

Opt for a Soy Based Diet :- Soy based foods contain isoflavin, a substance that helps in reducing the estrogen content in the body. Since high levels of estrogen are also responsible for the formation of breast cysts, consumption of foods rich in soy can be helpful.

Breast Cyst Pictures

Check out these pictures of breast cysts that will help you understand what they are and how they look.

breast cyst pictures

Picture :- An MRI image of a breast cyst

breast cyst pictures 1

Picture :- A closer look at a breast cyst

breast cyst pictures 2

Picture :- Illustration of a breast with multiple cysts


Breast cyst pictures

Picture :- Breast cyst incision

Note: None of the images in the article are owned by us.

Bartholin Cyst

bartholin cyst image

Bartholin Cyst Definition:- This type of cyst is a fluid or mucus filled abscess which forms when the duct of the Bartholin gland gets obstructed.

Understanding a Bartholin cyst

The Bartholin glands are located at the either sides of the entrance of the vagina. They are tiny and cannot be seen upfront. Their main function is to discharge fluid into the mucosal surface of the labia i.e. the lip type skin construction surrounding the vagina or simply lubricating the vagina upon stimulation. They also help in aiding sexual intercourse by decreasing friction. The fluid released by these glands, which are also called the vestibular glands, then travels down tiny ducts called Bartholin ducts which are approximately 2 centimetres long into the inferior part of the entry of the vagina.

At times, the duct of the Bartholin glands get obstructed resulting in the mucus or fluid retention in the gland which ultimately leads to the formation of cysts called Bartholin cysts. If the fluid within the cyst gets infected, you can develop pus formation surrounded by inflamed tissues resulting in Bartholin abscess formation.

Size of a Bartholin Cyst

There is no fixed size up to which a Bartholin cyst can grow. These cysts can range anywhere from the size of a pea to as large as the size of a cherry. They can grow up to 0.5 to 1 inch in diameter and the size often increases very gradually.

Symptoms of Bartholin Cysts

There can be times when a Bartholin cyst grows and shows no symptoms at all. It is absolutely normal for a woman to have this cyst and be completely unaware of its presence. These cysts mostly go unnoticed; however there are a few symptoms that can be observed in some cases, especially when the cyst is large:

  • A lump on the labia or lip like structure covering the vagina
  • Discomfort
  • Pain in the vulva during running, walking, jogging or sexual intercourse
  • Development of pus inside the cyst causing infection and formation of abscess
  • Fever resulting from infection
  • Tenderness and redness of the skin surrounding the Bartholin glands and the cyst
  • Warm feeling in the affected area
  • Swelling in the area of the vulva
  • Frequent chills
  • Oozing liquid from the cyst

Bartholin Cyst Causes

The main cause of the formation of a Bartholin cyst is the obstruction of the Bartholin glands. These glands are very essential as they lubricate the vagina and help in reducing friction during sexual intercourse. The blockade of the canal of these glands causes fluid to build up in the gland causing a cyst to form and increase in pressure on the surrounding area. If bacteria get into the cyst, it causes infection and swelling resulting in the formation of a Bartholin abscess. The abscess can break open the skin and become very painful.

As per doctors, bacterial strands like E.coli and sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhoea and chlamydia contribute to the infection of Bartholin cysts forming Bartholin abscess.

Which doctor do you need to consult for a Bartholin Cyst?

Doctors who specialize in the study of female reproductive system, female genital organs and bartholin cysts are called gynaecologists. If you doubt that you have a bartholin cyst on either side or both sides of your vagina, then you must consult a Gynaecologist for diagnosis and treatment.

When to see a doctor?

If you are experiencing any of the following issues, then you must consult a doctor immediately:

  • Extremely painful lump that is not going away after few days of self-care and treatment
  • Formation of more than one lumps immediately one after the other
  • High fever and pus drainage from the cyst
  • Unexplained bleeding

Symptoms like severe pain and formation of more than one lump can signify something serious if your age is more than 40 years.

Diagnosis of Bartholin Cysts

To conclude if you have a Bartholin cyst or not, your doctor may do the following:

  • Perform a thorough physical examination of your vagina to check for lumps that can lead to the formation of an abscess
  • Ask questions related to your medical history
  • Perform a pelvic examination
  • Test samples of your vaginal swab for sexually transmitted diseases and infections
  • Carry out biopsy of the Bartholin cyst in order to determine the presence of cancerous cells if your age is more than 40 years or you are post-menopausal, though cancer of the Bartholin glands is extremely rare 

To-do list before you go for an appointment

Your first appointment can happen at your general physician’s or gynaecologist’s clinic. In order to prepare well for your appointment, here are few things that you can do:

  • Prepare a list of your symptoms including those that may not be related to your cyst
  • List down all the medicines and supplements that you had been prescribed in the past or are consuming at present
  • Prepare a list of questions that you may want to ask your doctor during the session. Some of them can be:
  • What kind of tests will I be required to undergo?
  • How will the cyst do away?
  • How much time will it take to go away after treatment?
  • Is there any self-treatment for the cyst?
  • Will it regrow?
  • Should I restrain from having sex until the cyst goes away?
  • Will there be any issues during childbirth?
  • Be ready to answer the following questions that your doctor may ask you:
  • When did you first discover the cyst?
  • Were you facing any other symptoms also?
  • Is your cyst painful?
  • Does the cyst ooze liquid?
  • Do you feel pain while sitting or walking?

Complications associated with Bartholin Cysts

A common complication associated with Bartholin cysts is the recurrence which may require treatment again.

Another complication can be the spread of the Bartholin abscess infection to other organs of the body if it becomes severe. The infection may move in your bloodstream causing septicaemia which requires immediate medical attention and even hospitalization in case of high fever up to 103 degrees and above. 

Bartholin Cyst Treatment

In most of the cases, the Bartholin cyst does not require any treatment at all and goes away on its own, especially when it is asymptomatic in nature.  If the cyst is large and is accompanied by symptoms like severe pain and infection, then treatment may be required. However, the treatment will depend on the severity of the symptoms, size of the cyst and extent of the infection. The treatment options are:

Surgical drainage :- If the cyst is extremely large and severely infection, it may require drainage. A surgery will be performed and drainage of the cyst will be conducted under local anaesthesia or strong sedation.

The doctor will make a small cut in the cyst and allow the excess fluid to drain. Once the drainage is done, the doctor will insert a small rubber pipe inside the cut and allow it to stay there for at the most six to seven weeks so that complete drainage takes place.

Antibiotics :- The doctor may prescribe a course of antibiotics for infection or sexually transmitted diseases that are found during testing.

Marsupialization :- This procedure comes handy when the cyst grows again. The doctor creates stitches on each side of the drainage cut to create permanent openings less than 7 millimetres long. A catheter is then inserted to allow drainage for a few weeks for completely recovery.

If none of the treatment methods mentioned above are helpful and the cyst refuses to leave, the doctor may recommend removal of the Bartholin gland. The surgery for removal is also performed under anaesthesia and is accompanied with complications like heavy bleeding. Hence, removal of the Bartholin gland is the last resort.

Bartholin Cyst Home Remedies

In case of Bartholin cysts, some natural treatments can be used to eradicate the jam in the Bartholin gland and remove the cyst. They are:

  1. Warm water bath :- Soaking or sitting in a tub filled with warm water atleast three to four times a day can be helpful in preventing infections and providing relief from pain and inflammation. It is also very helpful in causing the cyst to break open on its own and dissolve.
  2. Tea tree oil :- Powerful antiseptic and anti-microbial, tea tree oil is highly effective in preventing infections and reducing pain and inflammation. Applying few drops of tea tree oil mixed with coconut oil can help. It is especially very effective in the treatment of sebaceous cyst.
  3. Vitamin C and D :- Vitamin C and D help in firming the immune system and allow it to fight deadly bacteria and virus. They are very useful in the treatment of Bartholin cyst, especially in the prevention of infections.
  4. Probiotics :- Oral probiotics capsules and probiotic drinks are very effective in balancing body nutrients and fighting off bacteria to get rid of infections and prevent the formation of Bartholin abscess.
  5. Post-operative care :- If you have undergone a surgery for the drainage of the Bartholin cyst, you must take proper rest in order to let the cut heal completely. Give it time to recover and take your medicines on time.

Bartholin Cyst Prevention

There is no set prevention method to prevent Bartholin cysts from occurring, however some safety measures that help in prevention from infections that can be deadly. They are:

  • Using of condom during sex
  • Maintaining a good hygiene
  • Keeping the affected area clean and dry
  • Preserving a healthy urinary tract
  • Drinking plenty of fluids 

Bartholin Cyst Pictures

Glance through these pictures of Bartholin cysts to understand the look and feel of it.

Bartholin Cyst Pictures

Image : A Bartholin cyst in a healthy female

Bartholin Cyst Pictures 1

Image 2 : Position of the Bartholin gland in females

Bartholin Cyst Pictures 2

Green Poop in Toddlers

Green Poop in Toddlers

Your stool is an excellent way to show the overall health of your body and this is especially useful in children though not always accurate. For children it is not easy to gauge whether their health is affected or the colour of their stool is due to something they ate because children have the habit of putting almost everything in their mouth which is then passed out in their stool affecting the colour. Though this is the case most of the time in some cases the colour of green poop in toddlers may be an underlying issue that could accelerate in the long run needing immediate attention.

Click here to know about White Poop in Toddler

Causes of Green Poop in Toddlers

Its important for your kids overall health that you found out what is causing the green poop. Toddlers love to put everything in their mouth as mentioned above so it could be anything but it does require your attention. Given below are a few instances that cause green poop in toddlers.

  1. Meconium

It is quite normal to see that newborn babies in the first few days of their lives pass meconium based stool that is rich in all the things that the baby digested when it was in the womb and may include bile, water, and amniotic fluid and so on. The stool turns yellow and green in the first three days of birth after the baby starts to digest breast milk.

  1. Dietary Causes

One of the most important things that affect the colour of stool in children is the dietary intake. There are many foods out there that can actually contribute towards green poop in toddlers which may include green vegetables or any foods that have artificial green colouring like ice cream and so on. The best way to make sure that the green colour is caused by dietary intake is to cut your baby off this food for a few days to see if the poop turns normal again.

  1. Medication and Supplement

Stool colour can change to green due to a number of medical reasons as well such as artificial supplements, vitamins that are green in colour and medication in general that has a green base to it. it is also seen that a baby’s poop turns green in colour due to the use o f laxatives to help a baby go to the toilet easily which speeds up the process to a great extent causing green poop in toddlers. Medications play an important role at times in causing this phenomenon.

  1. Diarrhea

For the children suffering with diarrhea this is a common issue because at this time your stool is bright green in colour because it does not spend enough time in the stomach in order go through the digestive system in a proper manner due to rapid transit caused by the diarrhea.

  1. Bile Secretion

Decreased time in the colon for transit of bile causes rapid transit that does not allow the bile that is naturally green to mix into the poop and turn brown in order to facilitate a normal defecation of brown stool. Since the bile is green before it mixes into the intestine you will see that the poop is green as well due to excessive bile secretion which slows down the system.

  1. Food Poisoning

The digestive tract of a child is much more sensitive than an adult’s and is much more susceptible to issues that are caused by food poisoning. The most common bacterial infection seen in children that causes food poisoning is E. Coli which causes stool to turn shades of light to dark green and is the main reason for green poop in toddlers. It is necessary to visit a professional if you see the symptoms are lasting for over 3 days.

  1. Other Health Disorders

There are many other issues as well that can cause green poop in toddlers which may include crohn’s disease, mal-absorption of bile, presence of mucus in stool and so on. Even ulcerative colitis and acid build up may cause green poop in toddlers and may require immediate attention before the issue builds up again.

Cautions for Green Poop in Toddlers

  1. When to See a Doctor

It is seen at times that a child passing green stool at times also has an underlying issue with disease which must be treated immediately. Given below are a few issues that could rise up with green poop in toddlers:

  • Weight loss (Unexpected)
  • Bloating
  • Diarrhea
  • Indigestion
  • Gas/flatulence
  • Abdominal pain
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Foul-smelling stools
  • Mucus present in the stool
  • Burning sensation in the rectum
  • Hard or Soft stool i.e change in the consistency of stool

It is always safer to evaluate a child’s green stool and put it up against the issues that are mentioned above to see if the child is suffering from any underlying issues as well. In an event where a child is suffering from abdominal cramps, decreased urine output, bloating or any other of the issues that are mentioned above along with the defecation of green poop then it is very necessary that the child be taken to the hospital immediately.

  1. Pay Attention to Dehydration

It is quite often seen that a child suffering from diarrhoea may run the risk of dehydration as well. It is important at all times that this issues should be avoided and in the event of dehydrated the child must be taken for medical help immediately.

  • There are a few signs of dehydration that you must take into account at all times which may include loose or watery green poop, absence of tears when crying, excessively wet diapers and so on.
  • It is important to prevent dehydration in the event of Diarrhoea with the help of oral electrolytes which provides the essential fluids, salt and nutrients that your body needs to help fight dehydration. It is important that you take your doctors help immediately in the event that your child is unable to keep food down, is passing discoloured stool for more than a couple of days or is running a stagnant fever.

Baby Born Without Brain

Baby Born Without Brain

Anencephaly is the medical term for the critical condition of a baby when he or she born without a brain. Generally, the defect occurs in the neural tube same as spina bifida but specifically the defect arises in this case on the end of the brain of the baby. In spinal cords butt end the defect does not arise. Most of the cases when baby born without brain, miscarriage happens and as a result, it is hard to see the defect in fully developed babies. As per the CDC report, about one baby in every five thousand gets the affected by the anencephaly. The disease is highly mortal yet a Florida-based boy named Jaxon Emmett Buell has completed one year and now can utter “mama”, “daddy” like simple words who has lost a maximum portion of the skull along with brain during birth.

The Symptoms of Baby Born Without Brain

This pathetic situation is known as highly congenital abnormality when a baby born without brain. Partially the baby’s skull does not grow in this serious situation along with the improper development of the brain. This is one of the lethal defects of a newborn baby.

All the symptoms though are not noticeable in a single newborn yet most of the common signs of anencephalic disease are below:

  1. The side bones, as well as the front bones of the head, are lacking.
  2. The bony cover is not developed well on the back of the new born’s head.
  3. Improper forward folded ears found.
  4. Cleft palate occurs most of the cases where the upper portion of the mouth along with the upper lip are isolated in the halfway.
  5. The newborn baby may have heart defect too.
  6. Uncomplicated reflexes can be seen but the proper development of cerebrum cannot be noticed which indicates the unconsciousness of the baby and a very short life span.

The physicians keep the baby warm and also protect the open portion of the brain from the exposure to the outer environment. To keep newborn alive he or she is fed by a special bottle which helps to get the nutrition properly and provides a life support.

Reasons of Baby Born Without Brain

Baby born without brain is a birth-related disease which occurs during early stages of pregnancy especially in the initial month when the woman doest even aware of the pregnancy. The development of neural tube is associated with early pregnancy which helps in formation of the skull, spinal cord, and upper spine’s bones along with the brain of the fetus.

If properly the upper part of the neural tube does not cover then it causes anencephaly. The reason for this pathetic phenomenon is unknown to each and everyone which is having a heartbreaking end result of the baby’s abnormal head. The forebrain does not flourish well as a result the new born is lacking proper coordination and thought. The rest of the brain does not have a proper covering of bones and skin.

 The Risk Influences of Baby Born Without Brain

Some influences become enough risky which pre-indicate that a baby may fail to develop brain properly and affected by the serious distressing anencephaly disease. The factors are below:

  • The Shortfall of Folic Acid. In the year 1995, it is proved that a baby born without brain due to the lack of proper folic acid intake of the mother. Although the researchers also said that complete the amount of folic acid is not the ultimate remedy of reducing the chances of anencephaly or any other diseases related to neural tube. A pregnant woman must consume 0.4milligrams folic acid every day which reduces the risk of neural tube defects.
  • Convinced Medication. Medication of a pregnant woman needs to be done under a well known, experienced gynecologist as some medicines are having the bad effects which lead anencephaly to the baby. Anencephaly may occur to the baby due to insulin-dependent diabetic medication, as well as anti-seizure medication.
  • Hereditary. In some special cases, baby inherits the disease from ancestors. Since it has proved that if a woman is having a baby born without brain then there is the chance of having the disease to her next baby is almost 3%. This is denied to 0.1% in case of the general population. It is suggested by the experts that a woman must go through a genetic counseling before conceiving again if she already has a neural defected baby.
  • Exposure to Toxicity. Nowadays, the exposure to heavy metallic substances like chromium, mercury, nickel and lead causes the immature formation of a neural tube of a baby.

Tips for Detecting the Conditions of Baby Born Without Brain

There are multiple ways to identify anencephaly. Below some ways are:

  • Blood tests. Blood tests help in detection of the disease by the eminent amounts of alpha-fetoprotein which get removed by the cells of the liver of the fetus. The protein is loaded with the fluid which surrounds the embryo. The high amount of alpha-fetoprotein also causes chromosomal disorders, misjudged due date and multiple fetuses apart from the baby born without brain
  • This process should take place during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. The help of a needle in this process draws out the amniotic fluid. The amount of acetylcholinesterase, as well as alpha-fetoprotein, is measured. If the amounts are high then it might cause anencephaly. An amniocentesis not only performs to for a baby born without brain disease but also is done to identify the chromosomal issues and genetic problems of an embryo.
  • Ultrasound examination. It is an absolutely advanced imaging technique with which the detection of the organs, blood vessels and tissues of the fetus by the help of computer programming and sound waves. The ultrasound evaluation also helps in watching the improper development of the skull of a new born.
  • Fetal MRI. This utilizes a powerful magnet along with a computer to visualize the status of the skull of a fetus. It is better to do fetal MRI instead of ultrasound for watching the development of the baby’s brain.
  • Post Birth Diagnosis. If it remains unnoticed prior, that the baby is born without brain then, treatment can take place after the birth of the baby too. Most of the portion of the neural tube will remain exposed as the brain cover does not develop properly.

The Restrictions of Baby Born Without Brain Disease

Baby born without brain is a disease which can also prevented partially by eating proper nutritional foods. Taking a prenatal vitamin before conceiving can prevent this disease. Even before getting child-bearing stage you also must consume enough folic acid supplements. The supplements folic acid is essential as because our daily foods do not have enough amount of the nutrient.

Doctors suggest taking more folic acids during entire pregnancy to the women who delivered babies with neural tube abnormalities rather than the women who delivered normal babies. You must ask the right amount of folic acid you have to consume daily. Generally, the women who gave birth neural tube defected babies must consume 4 mg of folic acid per day for the first two months before getting pregnant again.

Lipid Profile

lipid profile

What is lipid profile? Have we ever questioned ourselves when the doctor prescribes this test in your prescription? Lipid profile in very simple terms is the way to check any abnormalities in lipids. The amount of triglycerides as well as cholesterol is checked in this panel of blood tests for the doctor to understand of what exactly is going on in your blood. Normally, cholesterol & triglycerides are bad for health and blocks the arteries of the heart making you highly prone to heart strokes and attacks. There are a lot of other ill-effects of high ranging cholesterol in the blood.

Lipid profile helps you keep a good track on the blood cholesterol levels and helps you perfectly in keeping away deadly lifestyle diseases. It is very important to be aware of this particular lipid profile test to keep yourself safe. To know more keep reading below-

The Components of Lipid Profile

As we all know, lipid profile is a series of tests that has many components as a part of the structure. The details are as follows-

  1. Total Cholesterol
  2. LDL (Low density lipoprotein) and HDL (High density lipoprotein)
  3. Triglycerides
  4. VLDL – Very Low density lipoprotein
  5. The Ratio of Cholesterol: HDL

There are 7 Types of Lipid Profile Tests :

  1. Serum total cholesterol
  2. Total lipids
  3. Serum triglycerides
  4. Total cholesterol/HDL and cholesterol ratio
  5. Serum HDL cholesterol
  6. Serum phospholipids
  7. Electrophoretic fractionation to determination %age of

(a) Chylomicrons

(b) LDL(low density lipoprotein)

(c) VLDL(very low density)

(d) HDL(high density)

When to take a Lipid Profile Test?

Any adult who does not have any history of bad cholesterol levels or genetic history in parents/grandparents can get a complete lipid profile done every 4-6 years. A single test of cholesterol can be taken in such a case, and if there is any discrepancy related to the levels of cholesterol, then the entire lipid profile can be tested for.

For any adult who had a history of cholesterol or is genetically more prone to it can get the lipid profile test done once every 6 months- 1 year depending on the signs and symptoms of cholesterol in the body.

Risk Factors that lead to Cholesterol Levels

  1. Smoking Cigarettes
  2. Low HDL Cholesterol
  3. Age (for males- 45 years plus, females-50 years or older)
  4. Hypertension
  5. Diabetes
  6. Family history and genetics of the person

What is the significance of the results?

Normally, lipid profile checks how healthy the heart of a person is and how prone he/she is to heart diseases and strokes. The practitioner will overall check all the factors of the results and give a verdict on how prone the patient is to heart problems and whether any form of treatment is required or not. This treatment is to lower the risk of the person to heart strokes and attacks.

The National Cholesterol Education Program in 2002 had laid down the guidelines based on which the results can be measured. They also gave guidelines on the treatment procedure.

However. Things have changed and so have the cholesterol-lowering therapies that prove to be effective. An evidence based risk calculator is used to identify such people who are highly prone to the cholesterol issues looking into all their environmental factors and by seeing how well they will benefit from these therapies. The age group for this system is 40-79 years.

The factors considered for this therapy includes age, blood pressure, HDL, gender, total cholesterol, habits of smoking, diabetes etc. This finally determines the Lipid-lowering drug therapy to be given.

The Threshold of the Lipid Profile Test

LDL Cholesterol
Optimal: Less than 100 mg/dL (2.59 mmol/L); for those with known disease (ASCVD or diabetes), less than 70 mg/dL (1.81 mmol/L) is optimal
above or Near optimal: 100-129 mg/dL (2.59-3.34 mmol/L)
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL (3.37-4.12 mmol/L)
High: 160-189 mg/dL (4.15-4.90 mmol/L)
Very high: Greater than 190 mg/dL (4.90 mmol/L)

Total Cholesterol
Desirable: Less than 200 mg/dL (5.18 mmol/L)
Borderline high: 200-239 mg/dL (5.18 to 6.18 mmol/L)
High: 240 mg/dL (6.22 mmol/L) or higher

HDL Cholesterol
Low level, increased risk: Less than 40 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L) for men and less than 50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L) for women
Average level, average risk: 40-50 mg/dL (1.0-1.3 mmol/L) for men and between 50-59 mg/dl (1.3-1.5 mmol/L) for women
High level, less than average risk: 60 mg/dL (1.55 mmol/L) or higher for both men and women

Fasting Triglycerides
Desirable: Less than 150 mg/dL (1.70 mmol/L)
Borderline high: 150-199 mg/dL(1.7-2.2 mmol/L)
High: 200-499 mg/dL (2.3-5.6 mmol/L)
Very high: Greater than 500 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L)

Non-HDL Cholesterol
Optimal: Less than 130 mg/dL (3.37 mmol/L)
Near/above optimal: 130-159 mg/dL (3.37-4.12mmol/L)
Borderline high: 160-189 mg/dL (4.15-4.90 mmol/L)
High: 190-219 mg/dL (4.9-5.7 mmol/L)
Very high: Greater than 220 mg/dL (5.7 mmol/L)

What else should be known about lipid profile?

Normally, the lipid profile tests are done in fasting conditions. However, there are various researches going on where the professionals want to take samples of the non-fasting nature to get the correct measure of triglycerides in the blood.

Collection Details of Lipid Profile

  • Patient preparation – Fasting specimen
  • Specimen – Blood
  • Collection method – Routine venipuncture
  • Storage/transport temperature – Refrigerated
  • Stability (after separation) – Ambient: 72 h; Refrigerated: 1 week; Frozen: 3 months

Blue Balls

Blue Balls

The term blue balls were believed to have originated in the US at around 1916. Here, in this condition a prolonged sexual arousal or unsatisfied sexual tension may lead to the blue balls condition.

Blue Balls Causes and Definition

The condition for blue balls usually is quite discomforting. If the testicles or the prostate glands experience blood or fluid congestion, the condition blue balls may arrive. Not all male experiences problem as such as the medical term for it has been given as epididymal hypertension.

During the span of sexual arousal in a man, the blood flows to the groins which in turn cause the blood vessels to dilate. This is how the erection in a male organ appears during times of sexual arousal. The veins that usually carry or pass the blood at around this time becomes constricted thereby allowing the erected position to remain persistent. The condition that persists is called vasocongestion and usually would occur in the testicle regions as well. This is why the size of the testicles during a sexual arousal period can increase by about 20-25% more. If the lack of a climax is felt, the congestion may remain to persist. A slight ache or pain in the testicles may persist too. For some the sensation might even result in heaviness. This is how the condition got its name ‘blue balls’.

Scientists also revealed that this is not limited to men alone as women too feel a similar phenomenon where due to vasocongestion an ache in the pelvic region or lower abdomen may arrive too.

Some more information regarding blue balls

Blue balls usually is simply an uncomfortable situation, a sensation of discomfort merely and this should never be resulted in forcing the other half into engaging in sexual intercourse, just to get rid of the condition. Even if the ejaculation process doesn’t occur, there will be no substantial damage done. Even though the vasocongestion theory is most renowned, other medical theories revolving around it can blame the epididymis for this condition. Epididymis usually carries the sperm and the theory so goes believes the backing up of the sperm instead of going forward can cause the condition of blue balls. Owing to vasocongestion, the term blue balls causes a slight coloration of the scrotum, a bit bluish in hue. However, the testicles don’t turn blue themselves.

Blue Balls Relief and Treatment

One thing that you should know about blue balls is that, this condition in no way is life threatening or dangerous in nature and would never cause death. Even without the possibility of ejaculation, the discomfort or the pain usually resolves itself within an hour. Enlisted here are some of the blue ball relief remedies.

  • Sexual release: If you resort to ejaculation, the vasocongestion will decrease which would result in blood flowing out of the groin region. This is one of the most effective procedures to get rid of blue balls condition. To get instant relief masturbation can be opted as a ploy.
  • Lay down: If you lie down the blood flow from the groin region can flow upwards and release some pressure from it which is why this can be taken as an effective medium to deploy the situation.
  • Massage: To release the pooling of blood in the testicular region, a soft massage can help you relieve the symptom. Massage the scrotum to alleviate the discomfort. This can also be used as a way to lengthen the sexual encounter whilst trying to relief blue balls.
  • Hot bath: A warm bath would immediately alleviate the discomfort and tension thereby relaxing you.
  • Cold compress: Use cold compress to reduce and relax the discomfort or pain sensation. The cold constricts the blood vessel. This would immediately decrease the excess blood flow to the region.
  • Lifting heavy objects: Every time you lift a heavy object, the abdominal or the pelvic region experiences a heavy pressure. The pressure in those areas may decrease the blood flow from the testicle region and release some of the pressure.

White Poop in Toddler

White Poop in Toddler

Usually, a child’s stool color greatly varies on the diet he or she consumes. But if you discover a rather uncommon hue in your child’s poop which is not usually normal, it should raise an eyebrow. White colored stool in your children can be alarming in nature. Chalk white stools with a slight yellowish spread or a graying tint may occur in normal conditions. The same can be the case for children who are affected by diarrhea. To help the doctor diagnose and determine the cause for white poop in toddler, present a saved sample to him.

Click here to know about Green Poop in Toddler

What Causes White Poop in Toddler?

1. Cysts in the bile duct: Bile is what imparts a hue to your feces while the bile duct cysts obstruct the bile from passing onto the gallbladder. Such a condition may create a situation where the pigmentation in the bile is lessened owing to the obstruction. This is why the stool may contain a pale color and usually is accompanied by jaundice or darkening of urine.

2. Viral Hepatitis: In this case, the liver is affected by the virus which causes the liver to fail. The virus affected liver now fails to produce the adequate amount of bile required for digestion. This can be linked to the paleness of your child’s stool color. Even though hepatitis doesn’t really stir up trouble in a child, if you in any way feel the white poop in toddler is related to this disease, seek medical attention for him immediately. This can be induced by some drug interaction that your child must be taking. In any case, try to contain the disease and prevent it from affecting others.

3. Malabsorption: Malabsorption is an illness type that affects the body caused by the lack of the proper nutrients in your body. As your body feels the inadequacy for the essential vitamins and minerals, this condition can cause a change in the color of your child’s stool. A wide range of situations may work their way up to malabsorption which is why it is essential that you consult a pediatrician.

4. Biliary Atresia: quite similar to the bile duct cysts symptoms, the Biliary Atresia is recognized as a birth defect. Here the blockage caused in the ducts passes the bile to the gall bladder from the liver. Get this diagnosed and treated at the speediest rate possible to avoid cirrhosis of liver.

5. Gut infection: also known as stomach flu or gastroenteritis, these are infections caused by a germ carrier. One can contract this from anything be it parasites, bacteria or virus which usually results in swelling of the inner lining to the digestion tract. Apart from white poop, the other side effects are abdominal pain and diarrhea, fever and chills, nausea and vomiting etc. the seriousness of the symptom or the illness depends on the intensity of the infection and may take hours or days to recover.

6. Miscellaneous others: apart from liver oriented diseases, some other not so common illness too may affect the color of the poop. They are antibiotics, antacids or antifungal medication reactions. Putting your child on a full milk diet too may cause an effect.

7. This is just a sampling of the situations that can cause whitening of poop in a toddler. There are dozens of situations that one can sight which can be either a serious or a not so serious affair that can be related to these symptoms. To get the best out of the treatment, collect a sample and offer it to the doctor for a diagnosis so that he knows the best way to go about this situation.

Cure Regarding White Poop in Toddler

The treatments of these conditions are strictly based on the diagnosis of the causes that led to the white poop in toddler situation.
• Building up the digestive quotient of your child is important. Make sure he has enough water to keep himself hydrated and even fibrous food to make the digestion process better. Whole grains, fruits, vegetables or legumes in the child’s diet would help in the process.
• Refrain from including fatty foods, refined carbohydrates, processed food or food that has high sugar content in your diet. They put excess pressure on the digestion process and eventually the liver too.
• If the white poop situation is grave in nature, your toddler may have to subject to surgical treatments. Treatments like chemotherapy may also be considered.
How to prevent white poop in toddler conditions?
• Healthy diet is necessary: A good nutritional diet will help you grow a hardy digestive system. Get rid of foods that have low fiber or fats in them. Include a lot more whole grain meals, vegetables and fruits, beans and legumes and fibrous food in general to enhance the digestive process. Make the process smoother by drinking lots of water throughout the day.
• Good habits are equally necessary as well: If your bowel passage is maintained and regular, a healthy excretion process will keep away abnormal excretion related illness. Encourage your toddler to make a routine to visit the toilet regularly especially after a meal. If they feel a slight urge to visit, always appreciate it. Fix a ten-minute schedule and encourage your child to sit on the toilet and push if the bowel movement is not smooth. Create a surrounding where using a bathroom for the toddler is appreciated and rewarded.
• Exercise to stay healthy: a healthy well-exercised body usually aids the digestive system. plan out a half an hour workout or physical sport for your child so that she can stay fit and exercised.

What is Prostate Milking?

Prostate Milking

It can be a medical benefit or simply a stimulant that arouses sexual emotions in you, but the secret to the word prostate milking is simply nothing but prostate massage. To start with, the first question that arises in the mind when you say prostate milking is the basic question as to how to milk the prostate but before you opt for such a medical performance, evaluate the reason or the cause for the need of milking the prostate. Even though it is beneficial medical wise, the process gone wrong would definitely damage the prostate gland and stir up a new line of problems in you. done both internally and externally, the procedure should be done with slow step by step progress and one should at all times keep in consultancy with a medical practitioner throughout the process, especially if something feels unusual or off.

Pleasurable Benefits of Prostate Milking

Prostate milking is usually good for quite a few pleasure spots and here they are enlisted below.

sensitivityProstate gland located in your anal region is connected to the genitalia on the front and this connection is made through millions of supportive emotion inducing nerves. Massaging or prostate milking can therefore arouse a sexual pleasure as the nerves become sensitive on massaging.
Hidden genitalia The penis in the male genitalia which is a strong source of sexual pleasure point apart from the basic necessities. Now, it is told that about a third of the entire penis shaft is hidden inside the body of the man, the base of which when pressed during the prostate milking can arise pleasurable feelings or sensations.
Psychology testedPsychological barriers considered, the mind of a man works in strange mysterious ways where being exposed to such a vulnerable condition itself may be a pleasure source. The physical aspect of pleasure is always welcomed and persistent during this and the heightened psychological pleasure adds on.
Ejaculation sensationThroughout the while process of milking the prostate glands at no point do we ever directly come in contact with the prostate gland itself. the easiest access is through the rear end and the gland is separated by this one thin layer of membrane. However, that does not stop us from feeling the heightened sensitivity which is often described as the feeling one gets whilst during ejaculation.

  prostate milking

The Procedure for Prostate Milking 

Preparation procedure:

Norms and rules pertain to every situation and since this has something to do with intimacy, a few things handy during the performance of this procedure can assist or make the procedure more relaxed and simple instead of complication.

  • Some handy things to work with:

when opting for the performance of this, there are some unsaid rules and some assistance that would make the process easier and here we mainly would need two items, a good surgical glove, the white latex kind and the other being a lubricant to make the process easier. Hygiene and cleanliness is the first in the priority list where both the giver and the receiver should be clean. The surgical gloves should be strictly used so that the soft latex texture does not tear or scratch the membranes as human skin or nail can be a bit rough or coarse for the fragile membrane. The lubricant is used simply to facilitate the procedure without much obstruction where it makes the work smooth. Here is a little tip, always go for a water based lubrication gel.

  • Calm and relaxed:

The thing is a tensed prostate gland will never give you the benefit or the pleasure of massaging it which is why it is always required that you relax yourself and calm the nerves before taking a prostate milking procedure. Why not go for a nice steaming hot bath or a hot oil massage on the tensed muscles around so that it gives you a relaxed sensation and thus calms the prostate glands too.


prostate milking

STEP 1:  comfort is of paramount importance

To start the process, the receiver needs to undress and be seated with a back support. Start by sitting upright, your legs stretched in front of you. The back support should be strong enough to hold you weight as you recline backwards allowing your body to slide some inches ahead. Now fold your knees and bring them closer to your chest and keep them locked there. Here we have the receiver in position now.

STEP 2: position of giver

The giver should place himself right in front of the receiver, facing him straight so that he can have full unhindered access to the genital area, including the anal region. This is why we would suppose the giver should kneel down or sit cross legged opposite to the receiver.

STEP 3: starting procedure: massage of the lower body

Massage of the lower body will help you heighten the sensation or get you in the mood which is parallel important. Setting the mood will not only help relax the receiver but also allow the giver to move in to the progressive procedures of having to milk the prostate. The receiver may or may not keep his eyes closed but if you want to increase the intimacy quotient, it is suggested that you keep eye contact with the giver.

STEP 4: getting into position

Here we start with the baby steps to the procedure to milking the prostate where once the giver and the receiver both agrees on the aroused mental state, the giver should move on to now preparing for the process. Slip into a latex glove for hygiene and safety and now use the lubricant directly into the anal region to soften or smoothen up the area. Lubrication too should be a part of the arousal or sensitivity technique which is why the lubrication procedure should be aptly timed and carefully done, possibly by starting with circular motions in the rectal region.

STEP 5: create your path with gentle care

The path for prostate milking needs to be created with ease and carefulness. Never should a giver simply just poke the finger in the rectal passage which may evoke sudden pain or discomfort. The way to go about is to massage the area with more and more lubrication to gel it smooth as you use your finger pad to gently apply pressure on the area so that you can get access to insert your finger. Patience and appropriate timing is very crucial here.

Note: it all comes down to our body being prepared for the procedure which is why when the anal region is ready, that is our body is prepared, the receiver will not feel any sort of discomfort or pain but rather would feel the givers finger perfectly fitting in. do not immediately move the finger as the anal sphincters still need to get accustomed to the finger. Keep on adding lubricant for successful prostate milking.

STEP 6:  allocation and work

  • Crook your finger upwards when the anal region is ready and two inches deep within, your fingers would meet an oblong protuberance which is the prostate gland.
  • Now start applying pressure to create the pleasure feelings. It is dependent on the pressure, be it high or low will the respondent feel the sensations.
  • To heighten the pleasure, one can massage the genital area too to keep the feeling og ejaculation constant and going.


This is the last stage where once the heightened feeling of pleasure is felt, the giver can carefully insert and exit the finger in the rectal passage in a repetitive rhythmic manner so that the sensation felt is much greater as the nerve endings get stimulated. At this time there can be the following scenes that take place:

  1. The receiver climaxes with the encouragement from the giver without anyone directly linking genitalia in it.
  2. The giver whilst milking the prostate can assist in the receiver’s climaxing using the spare hand.
  3. There is no involvement of genitalia as the giver milks the prostate to stimulate sensation or ejaculation.


This is the other technique, where the receiver faces away from the giver as he crouches down kneeling on his knees so that his buttocks are up and relaxed in a position with the elbows resting on the front. The giver at the back should be stably seated or positioned so that he has easy access.

For the rest, follow the procedure from the above section.

Here’s a video to explain the process better

Precautions to the procedure:

  • This procedure of milking the prostate gland requires carefulness to the extremes as you try not to perforate the thin membranes of the prostate glands which if done so can result in permanent damage.
  • If you are suffering from acute prostatis, refrain from doing this as it may cause blood poisoning.
  • Milking may also result in enlargement or inflammation of the hemorrhoids.
  • Prostatic calculi are small gritty stones that form in the prostate gland and may cause to tear or scratch the subtle membranes.
  • If you are suffering from prostate cancer, avoid prostate milking so as to prevent the spread of the cancer cells all over the body.