Bone Marrow Cancer

Bone Marrow Cancer pictures

Every year in the UK about 4800 people are diagnosed with the bone marrow cancer. This would mean about 13 people per day are diagnosed. Our bones contain within themselves a sponge like tissue that we know as the bone marrow which aids in production of blood cells within the body. The plasma cells encased within the bone marrow are one of the vital parts that constitute the immune system. It is these plasma cells that get affected by the cancer. Instead of forming a lump or a tumor in any other cancer cases, the bone marrow cancer usually progresses through expansion within the marrow itself. The cancerous cells can start formulating themselves anywhere within the marrows be it the pelvis, skull, spines or the rib cage.

Bone Marrow Cancer-Important Definitions

The cancer or growth of dead cells in the bone marrow is called bone marrow cancer or multiple myeloma. As the cancerous cells flood the bone marrow, it stops producing normal blood cells which leads to bleeding issues, high susceptibility to infections and anemia. The myeloma or the cancer also starts producing a particular type of antibody.

BONE MARROW

The bone marrow is a collection of soft tissues where blood cells are produced from the stem cells. The blood cells that are produced are further divided into red blood cells, white blood cells and plasma cells. The bone marrow makes billions of blood cells everyday.

ANTIBODIES

Produced by the plasma cells, antibodies are proteins called immunoglobulins that help in fighting against bacteria and virus. The plasma cells produce several different types of antibodies that fight against several different infections.

PLASMA CELLS

These are a type of white blood cells produced by the bone marrow. They are the soldiers and help the body fight against any infection. They are responsible for building the body’s immunity to prevent attack by foreign organisms.

Bone Marrow Cancer- Detection and Diagnosis

Below are some symptoms that can lead to the detection and diagnosis of Bone Marrow Cancer.

  1. Low Level of White Blood Cell

During the bone marrow cancer period the production of the healthy white blood cells become restricted or limited. This would make combating viruses or bacterial infections very difficult which is why an infection at around this time may not easily fade away. The increase in the plasma cells inside your marrow also prevents enough platelets from producing which is why sudden bruising or abnormal rates of bleeding may persist. With the lessening of the red blood cells, fatigue, lethargy and breathlessness may be a common companion at this time.

  1. Bone Pain

If you are experiencing serious bone pain and are compelled to visit a doctor much like the 70% that do, chances are that you have contracted bone marrow cancer. The lower back area or the rib cage is usually the places the pain commonly occurs. The pain experienced is usually caused by the excess production of the plasma cells that accumulate in the marrow and ends up damaging the bone itself. The usual case is a bone fracture.

  1. Excessive Calcium in the Blood

If your bones are damaged the calcium instead of the bones is directly released into the blood stream. Excessive amount of calcium in the blood therefore may cause a condition called hypercalcaemia which tends to make your sickly, fatigued and thirsty quite often. Since your body at this time is trying to get rid of the excess calcium in the blood stream, you may experience frequent urination. If the symptoms are ignored or the condition worsens, drowsiness sets in sometimes in such a manner that one needs to fight to stay awake.

 

  1. Kidney Damage

If the kidneys are affected and is not working up to the point, the repercussion for this may be in the form of an inflammation in the ankles. Due to the over production of the plasma cells a spike is experienced in the levels of antibody proteins which in turn damage the kidney as it passes through your blood stream and into the urine. The doctoral terms for this antibody protein are known by the name Bence Jones which is named after the doctor who discovered it in the year 1850. This however is a symptom that would appear in the later stages of your cancer.

  5. Hyperviscosity

In this case, the blood become very thick due to the presence of high level of paraprotein in it. Other symptoms that accompany Hyperviscosity are nose bleeding, blurred vision, frequent headaches and fatigue.

6. Amyloidosis

In this condition, an abnormal protein called amyloid collects in various parts of the body and causes various symptoms like vomiting, nausea and fatigue.

How is Bone Marrow Cancer diagnosed?

A combination of physical examinations and lab tests are conducted to confirm the presence of Bone Marrow Cancer or Multiple Myeloma. The lab tests include:

  • A blood test or urine test to detect the paraprotein
  • KFT or Kidney Function Test
  • Blood Calcium Test
  • Chromosome and Gene testing of Myeloma cells
  • Blood test to check beta-2 microglobulin and albumin
  • CBC or Complete Blood Count
  • Bone marrow test or Bone Marrow Biopsy
  • X-rays of the bone
  • An MRI or CT Scan
  • Bone density test

These tests are conducted over a period of time to study the progress of the disease.

Bone marrow cancer- when does it require a doctor visit?

On experiencing the following symptoms, consult a doctor or seek medical help at once

  • Sudden loss in weight
  • Extreme unexplained tiredness that may last longer than two weeks
  • Constant and stagnant bone ache, especially the ribs or the lower back
  • Bladder or bowel control loss
  • Excess thirst sensation accompanied by abundant and frequent urination
  • Tingling or numb sensations in your limbs, be it upper or lower. Weakness too can set in

The symptoms mentioned above need not necessarily speak of a bone marrow cancer but in case you are experiencing them, it is best if you check up on the issues. The doctor would usually looks for internal bleeding, infections or tenderness in your bones as a form of diagnosis.

Bone Marrow Cancer- Causes and Sources

The exact source for the cause of this condition is not defined but according to the doctors it usually starts with one plasma cell going abnormal which causes it to irrationally multiply. However, cancer cells unlike the normal healthy cells don’t mature and die but they keep accumulating and expanding until it outruns the normal healthy cells count. Within the bone in the marrow, these abnormal cells usurp the red and white blood cells and the tiredness and weakness sets in rendering your body unfit for combat.

The cancer cells much like the healthy plasma cells tries to make antibodies too. But, the antibodies produced by the cancer cells are unfit for use so they keep storing themselves stirring up problems on the way like kidney damage and such.

Bone Marrow Cancer- Risks

The exact defined cause for the bone marrow cancer to appear is still not fixed or definitive. However, there are still some factors that may risk the encouragement of these cells while your body becomes more vulnerable owing to these triggers. Some of the risk factors are enlisted in the table below:

 

Factors Elaboration
Exposure to radiation Atomic bomb exposures or low grade radiation exposure may be a trigger that causes the bone marrow cancer to formulate or set in.  Anyone exposed to the above mentioned may risk the disease.
Exposure to chemicals Chemicals used whilst the manufacture of rubber or the ones like asbestos, benzene or pesticides are harmful for your body. Exposure to these encourages your chances of contracting marrow cancer.
Family historyThe bone marrow cancer at times can be family inherited.

If you have a sibling or a parent in direct relation to you, the chances of you contracting the same increases by four times. However, this is often a rare case and not too common a factor.

If you have a history of suffering from a solitary plasmacytoma pertaining to the bone you are actually at a risk of contracting multiple myeloma.

Factors linked to diseases According to the American Cancer Society, obesity or excess weight on your body will increase your risk of contracting marrow cancer.
Lowering immunity If you have just undergone an organ transplant and is currently on a medication course to get your immunity back up, chances are that you may risk exposing yourself to marrow cancer.

HIV patients usually are at a higher risk.

Similar other risk factorsThe risk of bone marrow cancer ages with you and as you grow older the risk becomes more and more prominent. Usually one would find about 1% people under the age of 35 coming down with this disease, whereas people above the 65 age mark are usually seen at a higher risk.

This condition usually prefers men than women most of the time.

The ethnicity of the person matter too. Even though the reason for it is not concrete, it is often noticed that African Americans are more tend to contract this disease as compared to Caucasian Americans.

 Bone Marrow Cancer- Treatment and Cure

A concrete cure for bone marrow cancer is still not devised. However, with the right kind of treatments one can ease the symptoms, possibly reduce the pain or contain the complications that arrive. The treatment techniques can stabilize your disease and tone down the intensity of it.

  1. Targeted Therapy

This treatment usually deals with abnormalities in the cancerous plasma cells. The targeted drug treatment targets some of these cells and helps repair or save them. Bortezomib or Carfilzomib can prevent the substance action in myeloma cells that aids in protein break down. This action leads to the demise of the myeloma cells. The usual way is to inject it in your system through your arm veins.

  1. Biological Therapy

This particular treatment focuses on building up the immunity system to your body so that you can fight off the abnormal cancer cells. Lenalidomide, pomalidomide and thalidomide are some of the drugs that supports and build up your immunity system which allows your system to indentify, diagnose and attack the abnormal marrow cells. These medicated drugs come in pill forms.

  1. Chemotherapy

In chemotherapy, the cancerous cells that are progressive in nature are eliminated immediately and this includes the myeloma cells as well. The technique can be implied either in a pill form or through injection to your veins. Before you move into the stem cell transplant, you may require a high dose of chemo.

  1. Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses energy beams much similar to X-rays which ends in damaging the myeloma cells thereby leading towards their eradication. They can also be used to shrink the size and functionality of the myeloma cells but only in certain area where the accumulation of The plasma cells have resulted in creation of a tumor causing pain and destruction of a bone.

  1. Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle
  • Ample amount of exercise and a healthy nutritional diet is all that is required for you to stay fit. This would also help you gather your energy level and protect your bones from fading easily. This may also partake in improving your mood.
  • Adequate amount of rest is required too. Small naps or breaks during the day can help you recharge your energy and keep you on your feet.
  • Seek assistance from support groups to get over a nasty habit or ask for help from anyone to reduce the pressure on your part. A good healthy mind would help you combat or prevent the disease in a more stable way.
  1. Stem Cell/Bone Marrow Transplantation

Using the stem cell or marrow transplantation you can replace the damaged or the rogue cells with healthy bone marrow. The video attached underneath would tell you more about the workings and types of transplantation’s that there is. It will also guide you as to choosing the right treatment technique along with elaborated details.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-uFcvJnw24

Cancer Causing Foods

Cancer Causing Foods

There is no doubt that even after so much advancement in technology and medicine, one of the deadly diseases that still exist is Cancer. Sad and disappointing to know that cancer is still one of the medical conditions for which there is no treatment and no medication as such apart from chemotherapy. Today, even after a more than a decade of fight against cancer, the rate of survival is something that doesn’t even come to half of the number of people who suffer from cancer every year.

Nowadays, the increasing environmental causes like pollution, eating habits and even smoking and alcohol consumption has led to an ever-increasing rate in cancer occurrence. Among these, eating habits is something that we are going to cover in this article. You will be shocked to know how unaware we are of certain foods that we eat everyday thinking it to be healthy but which are actually cancer causing foods. Yes, you heard it right! There are a lot of foods in our daily diet which in the long term results in Cancer. To understand it further, the best is to check the top notch foods that cause this condition and to be aware of removing them from the diet for good.

Related Post: Stage 3 Breast Cancer Overview

Top 18 Cancer Causing Foods to Remove from the Diet Today

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These are all the well-covered cancer causing foods that you should be aware of without any doubt. The foods mentioned here, are all damaging for the body in some or the other way and mostly in making it more prone to cancerous results. However, even after that, it is not required to remove these foods completely from the diet. If taken in limited amounts, these are not much of a harm to the body. Over indulgence in healthy foods can also lead to problems in the body as it is for these unhealthy foods.

Important: Please note, that these foods are not poisonous or leads to killing or you won’t get cancer immediately after consuming anything from the above. It is only in long term and excessive intake that will lead to the problem. Also, they increase the risk of developing cancer but is not the whole and sole reason for cancer, in case it occurs. Heavy pollution and smoking are some of the common reasons that trigger cancer and these foods only help them further.

One of the best ways is to stay healthy, avoid smoking as well as drinking and also exercise well. Eating healthy and organic foods are highly recommendable and try to opt for cancer preventing foods. This is bound to help you in keeping this deadly disease at bay.

Being active is another of the lifestyle choices that needs to be made. Have drinks like green tea that helps in destroying the free radicals in the body caused due to pollution and bad foods. Free radicals are highly responsible for growth of cancer cells in the body. Rest, have a happy living!

Stage 3 Breast Cancer

Stage 3 Breast Cancer

Researches in the United States show that breast cancer is the second most common cancer after the occurrence of skin cancer. Women are increasingly common to this kind of cancer but are prevalent in men as well. There has been an increment in the awareness and funding of this kind of cancer. This is why research of breast cancer is reaching and touching out new heights in treatments and diagnosis. Its severity along with the breast cancer determines which stage is it in while evaluating the proper treatment options. Here is a detail about more of stage 3 breast cancer.

What happens during Stage 3 Breast Cancer?

This stage is an advanced form of invasive breast cancer along with cancer cells, which does not have the chance to extend to the other parts of the body. It can definitely spread to the nodes of underarm lymph. It can be subdivided into 3 subcategories which are as follows.

  1. Stage 3A Breast Cancer
  • At this stage, the tumor may not be visible through naked eyes. The cancer might be present in 4-9 lymph glands, which are situated near the breastbone or under the arm.
  • Or else, in other cases, a tumour, which is bigger than 5cm along with minute group of breast cancer cells, are found in the lymph nodes.
  • Otherwise, a tumour, which is up to 5cm in size, further spreads into the three lymph nodes, which are situated close to the breastbone or armpit.
  1. Stage 3B Breast Cancer

The cancer at this stage extends up to nine or more lymph nodes of the armpit. It might also spread to the lymph glands located near the breastbone. This further leads to swelling or skin ulcer. There can also be possible chances of inflammatory breast cancer when the cancer stretches towards the skin.

  1. Stage 3C Breast Cancer

Doctors usually divide this stage into two categories, which are the inoperable and operable. In these cases, tumor usually is of any size or there can also be no tumor in any case. However, this stage spreads through the skin of the breast along the chest wall. This further leads to ulcer or swelling. It can also metastasize to up to 10 lymph nodes present in the armpit. This can further extend to lymph nodes present below or above the collarbone, while extending to lymph nodes present near the armpit or the breastbone.

Watch out for this Video to Know more breast cancer Symptoms:

How to treat Stage 3 Breast Cancer?

Individuals suffering from this type of cancer usually become depressed, as the rate of survival is only 72 %. However, it does not signify that the battle is over. There is a wide array of reliable treatments, which are widely acclaimed by the doctors along with the patients alike in order to fight off the disease. Following are such few therapies and remedies.

  1. Chemotherapy

This treatment is performed in varied ways, depending upon the type of treatment that is been undergone. One way is to consume liquids or eating pills and another common way is the injection of drugs directly into the veins.

The treatment further shrinks the tumor to a considerable size which makes it easy to remove during the process of surgery. It is also usually performed after the surgery in order to damage the cancer cells, which are left behind even after the surgery takes place.

  1. Surgery

Surgery for stage 3 breast cancer is of two types.

Lumpectomy

This is a kind of surgery in which some of the surrounding tissues of the breast are removed along with the tumor.

Mastectomy

This requires the removal of the whole of the breast by the surgeon in addition to the lymph nodes. It is for the patients to decide if a surgery is opted for reconstructing the breast after mastectomy.

  1. Radiation therapy

This therapy destroys the cancer cells, which might have been left in the body even after the therapy takes place. This is often suggested right after the surgery, which gets rid of any of the cancer cells, which might have been overlooked by the doctors.

  1. Hormone Therapy

The hormone receptor positive cancer is in need of hormones to mature. This therapy blocks any kind of source of the hormone from reaching out to the tumor. In addition, a varied range of drugs can be helpful in this case. Women who have yet not struck with menopause may further choose to remove the ovaries. In addition to this, doctor might further prescribe drugs, which could stop ovaries from being injected to the hormones.

  1. Targeted Therapy

The therapy provides the patient with prescribed medicines, which include ado-trastuzumab, lapatinib, emtansine and others. These are extremely effective to remove the HER2. It has been seen that a total of 25% women in stage 3 of breast cancer comprise of this specific protein in bulk which is required by the cancer to grow. The tumor further declines while ultimately shrinking due to the shortage in its supply.

How to cope with breast Cancer emotionally?

When individuals are diagnosed with this stage of breast cancer, a wide array of questions and fears usually arise in the mind. The uncertainty of future leads to a wide array of fears. Here is a list of suggestions to guide you in the dark times.

Communicate with other survivors

It is extremely comforting to hear stories of the times that you as an individual are going through. This further facilitates encouragement, as you know now that there are people like you too.

Share with your family

Family is the biggest support system and all times, and in situations like these, never shut your family. While you bestow your fears and worries upon them, be ready to be showered with hopes and encouragement.

Be positive

Being optimistic and positivity is the way to life at all situations. Hence, try to maintain as many positive thoughts as possible, while never losing hope.