Functions of the Skeleton

Functions of the skeleton

The skeletal system of our body comprises of the bones, that form the skeleton, the cartilages, which are the rubbery soft connective tissues found in the joints, ear, nose, and ribs, and the ligaments, which are the fibrous tissues, which connect one bone to the other. The functions of the skeleton form the basis of functioning of the human body. A child is born with 270 bones, which goes down to 206 bones  marrow, and blood vessels. The bone marrow and blood vessels are composed of nerve cells, fat cells and various other connective tissues. The osseous tissue forms the hard and rigid part of the bone, which calcifies over time, by deposition of minerals, and hardening it, and it reaches its maximum density by the age of 30.

There are two kinds of tissues inside the bones:

  • Compact bone: This stiff and dense tissue amounts to the outer layer of most of the bones and the key shaft of long bones, such as those in the arms and legs. Nerves and blood vessels live inside this tissue.
  • Spongy bone: This tissue consists of smaller discs filled with red bone marrow. It is found at the finishes of long bones, like the head of the femur, and at the center of other bones.

Apart from providing the body with a frame, the skeleton has various other important functions, like supporting, shaping, protection, mobility, etc.

Functions of the Skeleton

The human body is made up of the most complex skeletal system, which not only shapes the body but also helps us to stand erect and walk on two legs, unlike any other living being. The functions of the skeleton are not just limited to one but several aspects that are essential for the proper functioning of the human body. Another special feature is having opposable thumbs. These features distinguish us from the others and make us functionally exceptional. Some of the distinguished functions of the skeleton is discussed below:

  1. Shape: Shaping our body is one of the primary functions of the skeleton. The shape and size of the body, face and even the hands and legs largely depend on upon the skeleton. As the bones grow in size gradually with age, they form our shape. Though it also depends on upon the genes acquired, the bones are the ultimately responsible. A man with tall and thin bones is ectomorphs. Short people are mesomorphs and endomorphs are those whose skeleton makes then apple or pear shaped. Dwarfs are another kind whose bones are very small in size.
  2. Support:The maintenance of the shape of the body is also one of the functions of the skeleton. It supports the internal organs to stay in their respective places. The spinal cord is responsible for supporting the upper part of the body, while the ribs make sure that the heart and lungs are properly supported. The skull holds the brain, and the abdominal structure holds the gastrointestinal organs. The whole weight of our body is taken care of by the long bones in our legs.
  3. Movement:The nervous system controls the whole movement mechanics. It includes coordination of the skeleton, muscles and the joints. The bones and muscles together form the musculoskeletal system. They work together to make the human body agile and mobile. The muscle contraction pulls on the bones, resulting movements. The cartilages, ligaments and tendons, which are the connective tissues of the skeletal system, make the movements possible. However, the joints and the size of the bones are the determining factors in the range of movements. The joints like finger joints have limited movements, while ball and socket joints such as hips and knees are more movable. Hence, movement is one of the very important functions of the skeleton.
  4. Protection:The hard and bony structure of the skeleton forms small encasings for the soft vital organs of our body, to protect them from a direct impact or injury. The skull protects the brain. The spinal column is responsible for the spinal cord and nerves, whereas the ribs and the sternum, which forms the thorax protects the heart, the lungs and important blood vessels.  The flexibility is due to a constituent called collagen. The mixture of power and flexibility gives the skeleton the volume to absorb the effect of blows to the body without breaking.  Out of all the functions of the skeleton, protection, especially by the skull is essential for survival in situations like accidents or sudden fall.
  5. Blood Cell Production. Apart from osseous tissues, the bones are comprised of the bone marrow and the blood vessels. The bone marrow is of two types. There is the red bone marrow which produces about 2.6 million RBC per second. The yellow bone marrow stores fat, which can later be transformed into RBC in a case of anaemic patients or heavy depletion of RBC. Bigger bones contain bone marrow, a spongy tissue inside the bones. There are two main types of marrow, red and yellow. Red marrow is accountable for making of all of the body’s red blood cells and several white blood cells.In adults, red marrow is found primarily in the breastbone, hips, ribs, skull, and spine bones and at the end of long bones of the arms and legs. Several types of white blood cells, which guard the body from infections, are also produced in red bone marrow. Yellow bone marrow comprises primary fat cells but can convert into red marrow if the body wishes to upsurge blood cell production.
  6. The minerals like calcium and phosphorus, which are stored in the bones are very useful for the body as they help in maintaining a healthy metabolism and unhindered nerve transmission.
  7. Endocrine Regulation. As stated above, the bones are found responsible for maintaining a healthy sugar metabolism due to the presence of minerals like calcium and phosphorus. A healthy metabolism results in a healthy weight. A hormone called osteocalcin, is released by the skeleton, which controls type 2 diabetes, and also a regular distribution of fat. This hormone is also responsible for the increase in insulin production, thus regulating blood sugar. Endocrine regulation is a highly necessary element as regards the functions of the skeleton.
  8. Electrolyte Balance. It is necessary to maintain a right electrolyte balance in the body as, they helps in blood chemistry, reflexes, and other activities. Important electrolytes like calcium and phosphorus are present in the bones.
  9. Acid-Base Balance. A person’s acid-base balance is evaluated by measuring the Ph levels and levels of co2 and bicarbonate present in the blood. The bones lessen or moderate the changes in these levels.

From the above discussion, we can get a clear notion that the skeleton apart from, forming the structure of your body has a major role in the mobility, protection, and maintenance of the body.

Common conditions that affect the skeleton

Some common conditions that affect the functions of skeleton are:

  1. Osteoporosis :- It is a disease in which the bones become fragile and highly prone to fractures. In literal terms it means “porous bones”.
  2. Leukemia :- It is the cancer of bone marrow and white blood cells.
  3. Osteopenia, Osteomalacia :- These are also diseases of the bone, which finally result in weakening of the bone and bone loss.

Grade 1 Anterolisthesis

Grade 1 Anterolisthesis

The spinal column of the skeletal system is responsible for the protection of our spinal cord and to take on most of our body weight. It has a unique s shape. The shape enables it to evenly distribute our weight and stress we put on our body. It starts from the back of our neck and stretches to the pelvis. A pain in the neck, upper back or lower back may be a sign of various spine-related problems. One of which is Grade 1 Anterolisthesis.

Related Post: Complete Myalgia Overview

What Is Anterolisthesis?

The spinal column is made up of 24 small bones called vertebrae stacked over one another, 4 bones making up the coccyx, and 5 bones forming the sacrum. They allow mobility and flexibility of the spine. There are flat discs separating the bones from each other. They are meant to the shock absorbers for the spine.

The upper vertebral body is drum shaped. When this upper vertebral body slips over the lower vertebral body, it is called ANTEROLISTHESIS. It is a form of spondylolisthesis. It is basically graded on the scale of 1 to 4 where 1 means minor(less than 25%) and 4 being extreme (more than 75%). The gradation is done on the basis of damage, pain and the area damaged. It also causes pinched nerves causing inflammation in the vertebrae. It generally happens in the 4th and 5th vertebral bone.

Grade 1 Anterolisthesis

Grade 1 Anterolisthesis

When the slippage of the upper vertebral bone over the lower vertebral bone is less than 25%, it is graded under the grade 1 Anterolisthesis.  When you visit a doctor and complain about pain in the back or spine, he may ask you get an x-ray done. A lateral radiograph through x-ray will identify the damage. The damage is generally divided into 5 grades.

Other Grades of Anterolisthesis

  • Grade II: Slippage more than 25% and below 50% comes under this grade
  • Grade III: Ranging between 50% to 75%
  • Grade IV: Ranges between 76% to 100%. It is very severe.
  • Grade V: When the upper two connected vertebrae are completely detached from one another, it falls under this grade.

Symptoms of Anterolisthesis

In the case of following symptoms of pain and inflammation in the neck, the upper back and the lower back, one should go to the doctor to determine whether the pain is just muscular or comes under Anterolisthesis. grade 1 Anterolisthesis is mild and thus the symptoms are also minor.

  1. Pain

The most common symptom of Anterolisthesis is a pain. There is usually acute pain near the vertebral slippage. It may be local or spreading in a wide area. Some people also complain pain in the legs which is perceived weakness in one or both legs. It may become worse over time due to muscle spasms caused by the aggravation of the tissues near the spine, vertebral discs, or nerve roots.

  1. Other Symptoms
  • Severe nerve compressions may cause failure in control of the bladder or movements of the bowel.
  • There may also be tingling sensations and numbness in the legs.
  • There may be a lack of mobility and agility in the lower back.

How to Treat Anterolisthesis

The treatment usually depends on upon various factors apart from the severity of the slippage. They may be age, general health conditions, and symptoms. Treating Grade 1 Anterolisthesis is quite moderate. Some medications, proper rest and precautions, and exercise may cure grade 1. But in severe cases, surgery is required.

  1. Moderate Treatment
  • an x-ray determines the status of the slippage. Hence, it is required at regular intervals during the treatment process.
  • Any physical exertion should be avoided. Thus sports or physical work should be suspended.
  • A back support or brace can be utilised to reduce the pain and stabilise the back. Belts that support the back are quite useful during the treatment to reduce or stabilise the pain.
  • Some over the counter drugs like ibuprofen and naproxen helps in reducing the inflammation. If it is not enough, the doctor may prescribe some steroid injections.
  1. Physical Therapy

the patient is required to do some physical exercises under the supervision of a specialised physiotherapist. The help in restoring the strength in the muscle and improves its flexibility. They also readjust the vertebrae.

Please watch out for this video to see some sample exercises

  1. Surgery

In some circumstances, when the above treatments fail to relieve the patient of the pain and doesn’t improve their condition, a surgery may be required, as the pain usually interferes with the daily activities of the patient

The surgery is done to restore the slipped vertebrae in its position, thus reducing the nerve and muscle tension. After a few days of the surgery, the pain slowly subsides. There are two types of surgery process:

  • Decompressive laminectomy: This process has a major side effect. It may lead to an unstable spine, as in this process the part of the bone that is pinching the nerve and causing pain, is removed.
  • Spinal fusion:It is a major surgery which generally lasts for hours. In this process, a bone is used to make a bridge between the slipped vertebrae. They help to keep the vertebrae in place thus blocking any slippage. They also help the damaged bone to heal and grow. In some cases, metal implants may be used instead of a bone, which holds the connected vertebrae together until the new bone is grown in its place.

Myalgia

myalgia

Myalgia Definition:  It is also known as muscle pain or muscle ache. it is a one of the most common symptom of many disorders and diseases within the body. Since muscle tissues are present everywhere in our body, this pain is not restricted to certain parts of our body either. The muscle pain can develop almost anywhere in the body, hands, legs, neck, back. Also, the pain can vary from mild to excruciating.

Muscle pain can broadly be described in two ways:

  1. Quick and sporadic
  2. Deep and steady

Almost all types of muscle pain go away within a few days or so, however, some muscle pains can extend to months. Muscle pain is also accompanied by joint pain and is a leading cause of fatigue.

Click here to know more about Upper Arm Muscle Pain

Types of Myalgia:

Our entire body comprises of muscles, and hence Myalgia can occur in any part of the body. Depending on which body part is being affected, what are the muscles involved in the pain, there are various types of myalgia:

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Symptoms of Myalgia

The following are the symptoms to look out for to diagnose myalgias:

  • Muscle Pain
    • Dull ache or sharp pain
    • Spread over a local area or widespread
    • Mild or severe
    • Lasting a few minutes or consistent pain
  • Fatigue, extreme tiredness. Less desire to perform normal everyday activities
  • Tenderness in muscles
  • Swelling
  • Redness
  • Fever or chills if you have an infection
  • Joint pain along with muscle pain
  • Feeling of depression if the pain is persistent

Myalgia Causes

Usually, people can pinpoint the reason for muscle pain. This is because the muscle soreness is usually associated with stress, physical activity or tension. Some of the common causes include:

  • Tension in the muscles
  • Too much physical activity, what the body is not used to
  • Infection of soft tissue
  • Muscle injury sustained during physically demanding work or exercise
  • Inflammatory conditions

Myalgia can also be caused by some specific medical condition that the patient is suffering from. Some of them include:

  • Fibromyalgia- A lack of sleep, fatigue, depression and memory issues are some of the symptoms that characterize this problem. Since the brain is processing the pain here, it only means that you will experience heightened levels and more intense nature in such a condition. mental or physical trauma are some of the after effects of the surgery here. Females have a far better tendency to catch this medical condition as compared to men. Relaxation and exercise can help here.
  • Myofascial Pain Syndrome- This is characterized by pain in certain unrelated body parts by pressure on some of the other parts of the body. It is a chronic pain disorder and one that can be treated through physiotherapy with best results.
  • Viral infections like flu or polio
  • Lupus – Lupus is an autoimmune disease. It is not a very common condition to have. In this disease, or immune system attacks our tissues and organs. The inflammation caused by lupus may affect all the major organs of the body, including heart and kidneys. Lupus is a difficult ailment to diagnose and there is no cure for it. However, medication can help control the symptoms.
  • Dermatomyositis – This is a rare inflammatory disease characterized by muscle weakness and skin rash. It can affect both children and adults alike and is more common in females as compared to males. There is no cure for dermatomyositis. Skin rash can get better with treatment.
  • Polymyositis – This is a rare inflammatory disease that weakens the muscles of your body. This condition makes performing mundane tasks like climbing stairs, lifting weights, rising from a seated position, difficult tasks. It occurs more in blacks than whites and more in women than men. There is no sure for polymyositis but the symptoms can be controlled through physical therapy and medication.
  • Medications:
    • Cholesterol medication – Statins is a common reason for myalgia
    • Chemotherapy medication may cause myalgia, but it usually resolves itself once the medication is removed
    • ACE inhibitors
  • Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism – This means that your thyroid gland is either producing too little (hypothyroidism) or producing an excess of (hyperthyroidism) of important hormones. It is treatable with synthetic hormones.
  • Hypokalemia – Hypokalemia or low potassium refers to a lower than normal potassium in your blood stream. Potassium is an electrolyte that is necessary for the proper functioning of the muscle and nerve cells. It is especially crucial to the heart muscles. Extremely low levels (lower than 2.5 millimoles per litre) is life threatening and needs to be treated immediately.
  • Chronic exertional compartment syndrome – This is an exercise induced muscle and nerve condition that causes pain, inflammation and in some cases, disability in the affected muscles. This condition is more common amongst athletes participating in sports that require recurring activities.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome – This is a complicated disorder characterized by extreme fatigue. This fatigue might worsen with physical activity but the condition does not improve with more rest. The cause for this condition is still unknown. Theories range from psychological stress to viral infections, and all combinations in between.
  • Claudication – This is caused by too little blood flow during exercise. This condition usually affects the legs but can also occur in arms. Initially, the pain is restricted to times when one is exercising, however, this might worsen and one might feel pain even at rest. Claudication is usually a symptom of peripheral artery disease which is treatable.
  • Dystonia – This is a movement disorder. In this condition, the muscles contract involuntarily, causing repetitive movements. This condition can affect one part of the body (focal dystonia), adjacent parts of the body (segmental dystonia) or all parts of the body (general dystonia). The disorder can range from mild to severe and is different for each patient. There is no cure for dystonia but medications and surgery can improve symptoms.
  • Lyme disease – This is a disease caused by four species of bacteria – Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii (cause of Lyme disease in United States. Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii bacteria (cause of Lyme disease in Europe and Asia). This disease is spread through ticks. Initial symptoms are rash and flu like symptoms like chills, fatigue, and body ache.
  • Muscle cramp – This is usually short lived and is caused by long periods of physical labour or certain medications. It can be usually treated at home.
  • Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR)- The shoulder muscles are affected in this condition where it is characterized by pain and stiffness. There are medications to control it, but best is to consult a professional about the side effects before you go ahead with it. People above 50 years of age gets affected from this.
  • Repetitive strain injuries
  • Rheumatoid arthritis – It is an autoimmune disorder wherein the immune system mistakenly attacks your own body tissues. This arthritis affects the lining of the joints causing a painful inflammation that can eventually lead to joint deformity or bone erosion.
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever – This is a bacterial infection that spreads through ticks. It is most common in United States, Canada, Mexico and South America. It is characterized by headache, fever, rashes. It responds well to antibiotics.

Myalgia Diagnosis

The first thing that the doctor is going to do is ask you questions to determine the cause of your pain. For the doctor to determine the cause, doctor might ask you the following details and it might be wise to go prepared with such information:

  • Onset: When did it start
  • Type: Sharp or dull
  • Location: Any particular body part or all over
  • Intensity: On a scale of 1-10, where does the pain figure
  • Duration and frequency: the duration of the pain and how frequent such discomfort is faced
  • Activity: The set of activities you are performing that might be a cause of the pain

Based on these questions, the doctor might be able to determine the cause of the pain. If this information is not conclusive, the doctor might order some tests based on your pain chart. The tests might include some or all of the following:

  • X-Rays
  • CT Scan
  • MRI

The source of the pain might also be known, like chemotherapy or flu.

Home Treatments for Myalgia

Muscle pains usually respond well to home treatments. Here are a few you can try:

  • Rest: Provide adequate amount of rest to areas of the body that are paining
  • Medication: Take an over-the-counter pain killer like ibuprofen to relive some of the pain
  • Ice and Heat: Apply ice to the inflamed area to reduce pain and inflammation. If the pain remains after three days of ice treatment, apply heat to the affected area
  • Stretching: Gentle stretching of the muscles helps provide some relief
  • Avoidance: Avoid high strain exercise or physical activities till the muscle pain goes away
  • Elevation: Elevate your foot to help reduce the swelling
  • Yoga: Do stress relieving exercises such as yoga to relive both physical and mental tension
  • Compression: Use a compression bandage to reduce the swelling
  • Warm Bath: Take warm baths to soothe muscle pains
  • Massage: To relax to sore muscles
  • Acupuncture: To relieve muscle aches
  • Ensure bowel movement: Keep your fruits, fibra and fluid intake good to ensure that your bowel movement is not affected due to the pain and discomfort you are facing

When to see a doctor:

Usually muscle pains go away with time if they are due to physical exhaustion or a result of certain medication. However, in some cases, muscle pains might be a symptom of a bigger problem. It would be advisable to show to a doctor for requisite treatment if one or more of the following occur along with the muscle pain:

  • No relief after trying the home remedies for a few days
  • Extreme muscle pain
  • Rash accompanying the muscle pain
  • Muscle pain following a tick bite
  • An elevated temperature
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weak muscles
  • Inability to move certain parts of the body
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Signs of infection such as redness or swelling around an already sore muscle
  • Sudden onset of pain after a change in medicine dosage or change in medicine itself. Keep a special lookout for medications used to control cholesterol

Based on your overall health and the diagnosis arrived at by the doctor, you might be provided with some drugs to help control the pain and symptoms.

  • Antibiotics: If your muscle pain can be attributed to some infection, antibiotics will be prescribed. The antibiotics will make you feel better after a few days but do not stop the medicines without completing the prescribed course.
  • Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids help in reducing inflammation. This medicine prevents infection by preventing the white blood cells to travel to the area of swelling in the body.
  • Antidepressants: These are usually prescribed to patients who suffer from chronic pain and become tired and depressed.
  • Pain medicines: Our Central Nervous System (CNS) is highly alert when we are in pain. The pain medicines help blocking these messages and provide instant relief. Morphine sulphate and Oxycodone are two such medicines. Tylenol such as ibuprofen and naproxen sodium may provide relief from musculoskeletal pain.

Tips for Prevention of sore muscles:

Click here to know about Sore Muscles After Drinking

If myalgia is caused by tension or physical activity, taking the following precautions might help prevent it:

  • Stretching before and after workouts
  • Warm up and cool down exercises during each exercise session
  • Stay hydrated
  • Exercise in moderation regularly to prevent the body from getting shocks
  • If you have a desk job or if your job requires you to work in one position over long durations of time, then ensure that you stretch every 60 minutes

Knee Pain When Going Up Stairs

Knee Pain When Going Up Stairs

Knee pain is a common problem for the people, starting from the age of thirty. It is a most frustrating and numerous source of pain. When you are walking on a flat floor, you do not feel any pain, but when you step up or down and start any kind of activity by using your knees, you will feel an acute knee pain. With every steps of climbing you may feel more and more pain. There are many reasons behind the pain, so if you want a fight with the pain and want to win the battle, you need to follow a prolonged treatment process. The process of the treatment should base on the root of the reason of knee pain when going up stairs.

Causes of Knee Pain When Going Up Stairs 

  1. Arthritis of the knee pain when going upstairs

There are many forms of arthritis or the knee pain when going up stairs. Osteoarthritis and the autoimmune arthritis are the most common forms among them.

Osteoarthritis

In this type of arthritis, the tissues of the knees are break down and the cartilage bear thin and scratches and also the swelling occur and it increases the pain. The spurs of the bones develop too.

Autoimmune arthritis

When your body attacks itself and harms the major parts of joints and the supporting tissues of the joint like the ligaments, cartilage and synovium, this kind of arthritis occurs. Autoimmune arthritis is more painful and inflammatory than the other one. You will feel warmth, redness and swelling at the joint and knee pain when going upstairs.

Treatment for knee pain when going up stairs 

There are some home remedies for knee pain when going upstairs. These are complete rest, ice and hot water compress and reducing hard physical activities. Pain relievers like Tylenol or naproxen and ibuprofen also very effective. But for an autoimmune arthritis patient, it is strictly preferable to consult a specialist and ask your doctor to modify the immune system of your body.

  1. Patellar Tendinitis with knee pain going upstairs

People, who are participating in some activities like jumping or running, patellar tendinitis is very regular symptom with them. It connects the shin bone from the kneecap. You will face the knee pain when going up stairs or at the time of jumping or walking.

 Treatment of Patellar tendon, a type of knee pain when going up stairs

The treatment of the problem is same as the other type of knee pain when going upstairs. To get a relief from the problem, you need proper rest and also can compress cold or hot water or you can also lift up your painful leg on a pillow or can take a physical therapy. Muscle tightening, extreme kind of exercise, less of physical stipulation is the reason behind the problem.

Bursa sacks

Bursa sacks are a structural base problem, you may find the pain around many joints of your body and that provides the severe ligament and tendons moderation and lubrication.  The result of knee bursitis are some recurrent and rhythmic activities, trauma and squatting, kneeling. Knee bursitis develops with the problem of core arthritis and obesity. If you are suffering with the problem, you may find the warmth feeling at your knee, redness, inflammation, tenderness and also the knee pain when going upstairs

Treatment: You will get the relief from the problem by taking rest, Ice compress and OTC anti-swelling medicines. Is there any infection occurs, you need the antibiotics and if the antibiotics do not help you out, you need to go through by a surgery.  Any kind of aggravating activities are strictly restricted for the patient. The professionals should wear the knee pads at the time of knee pain when going up stairs.

  1. Knee pain when going upstairs with Runner’s Knee

This problem is specially faced by the runners, but also the people who are in some regular activities. Any kind of physical extortion and flexion is causes the runners knee. The symptoms of the problem are knee cap tenderness, inflammation and an acute knee pain around the knee and a popping and knee pain when going upstairs.

Treatment:

For a relief from the problem, you may apply ice or hot pad or can try some medicines like Ibuprofen, Tylenol and Aleve. You may use compression socks or ACE rap for the relief.

  1. Chondromalacia Patella and the knee pain when going upstairs

The beneath facade of the patella (kneecap) is enclosed with the cartilage and prone to soreness and damage. It is the result of chondromalacia and associated knee pain with chondromalacia. Most commonly the females and the teenagers are suffer with the problem, especially who have regular physical Activities. Offensive tracking of the patella causes a muscle weakness and cartilage damage. Intense knee pain when going up stairs, mild inflammation, motional sensation is the result of the damage.

Treatment: Treatment is same, ice compress, OTC medicines, ACE wrap, knee brace and knee sleeves etc. Physical therapy and Kinesiology is also very helpful for the problem and also help you to continue the athletic performances.

  1. Patellofemoral knee Pain when going upstairs

It may call up the too much knee pain because of the excessive stresses on knee. The imbalance of muscles can directed to an indecent tracking of patella above the femur bone and causes the knee pain and swelling. Standing for a long time, stair climbing, flat shoe wearing are the reasons behind the pain. Due to a pain of patellofemoral you may suffer with a mild swelling.

Here you may find a video regarding the problem. 

When Should you visit a Doctor for the knee pain when going up stairs

  • If you find a infection like the redness or fever
  • Acute pain
  • Lack of sensation, or leg shivering
  • The foot or leg appears pain, cold or blue
  • If you do not get any relief from the home treatment
  • If the pain become intolerable

Learn right way to climb upstair in the video

Herniated Disc Surgery

Herniated Disc Surgery

The vertebral space in our body is often protected and looked after by a set of small discs which plays the part of a shock absorbed during assault or traumatic situation where it minimizes the effect on the vertebral bodies. The condition disc herniation is caused when damage is experienced in these small discs. In this condition the vertebral discs mentioned before protrude or jut out of the inter-vertebral gaps. Other common names for this condition are known as ruptured disc or slip disc condition which is usually accompanied by a lot of pain. The nerves in the surrounding environment feel pressurized due to the compression resulting in shooting pain throughout the back and the neck region. Muscle weakening in the arms and the feet is common too. To contain the symptoms the last ever resort to treatment would therefore be herniated disc surgery.

Herniated Disc Surgery- Definition

In order to prevent disc herniation complication, the herniated disc surgery is one of the vital interventions that are necessary. However, the treatment or the surgery kind is quite dependant on the intensity and gravity of the symptoms and the situation. There may be some people who wouldn’t need any specific treatment at all but then there are some who may even require a surgery to eradicate the complications or the excruciating pain caused by the protruding disc.

Some types and kinds of herniated disc surgeries are:

  1. Laminectomy

This type surgery is called the laminectomy. In this condition a small intrusion is created just above the spinal lamina. The delicate cut must never irritate the underlying nerve roots. The gentle incision is often so miniscule that a microscope is often preferred to get the precise or accurate cut done.

The surgeon may advice to remove your lamina, either partly or absolutely and thus is called the laminectomy. The technique once again is opted for depending on the intensity of the condition provided.

  1. Microdiskectomy

The disketomy is yet another surgical intervention that goes by the name Microdiskectomy. This is one of the most common herniated disc surgery techniques.

Here in this technique, a small precise cut is made on the hind side to get easy access to the protruding disc. The surgeon goes on to remove the jutted out part of the disc that has been causing the pain and the pressure thereby relieving you off the symptom.  This is one of the least invasive surgical methods to cure a herniated disc.

  1. Artificial Disc Surgery

Often the surgery may require you to remove the entire portion of the disc which is when the artificial disc surgery is performed. However if the patient is already suffering from bone disease like osteoporosis or arthritis, this may not be the most likely surgical option to opt for.

The surgical procedure requires an incision in the abdomen through which the ruptured or protruding disc is removed and an artificial plastic or metal disc is replaced with it. The procedure is invasive in nature and requires performance only under anesthesia. 4. Spinal Fusion

  1. Spinal fusion

Spinal fusion too can be an invasive type of herniated disc surgery. This procedure requires bone grafting which can either be taken from a compatible donor or can be spliced from the same body, possibly another part of it. The graft fuses the two vertebrae which hold the herniated disc together.

To know more about herniated disc surgeries, watch this video:

Herniated Disc Surgery- Post Care and Cure

Any and every type of herniated disc surgery usually comes with some added risks and side effects. Often the condition herniated disc may make way for subsidiary other complications like nerve damage or internal bleeding or infection of sorts. If the protruding disc is not replaced or removed, the complications of suffering another rupture may occur again causing degeneration of the entire disc and compelling other diseases to fall through.

If you opt for the spinal fusion surgery you may suffer a risk at stiffness which once again degenerates a permanent tissue and causes chronic damage. Taking proper care of yourself right after the surgery therefore is of immense importance:

  1. Post Surgery

Once you wind up the surgery intervention, the paramedics or the medical staff will immediately tend to your post anesthesia care. The first priority is to record and monitor the pulse rate and the blood pressure at periodic intervals. Once the recovery process starts, the medical attendant will prescribe you to  take long deep breaths so that the oxygen quantity in your body remains adequate and not short.

  1. Care for Incision

Post surgery one of the most important and eminent procedure is to dress the surgical area or the incision to eradicate any possibility of contracting infection. After a two or three day period the dressing can be removed. Clean gauze after that can be used for cleansing and protection purposes. Once you hit the one or two week mark after the surgery you would be required to go visit the doctor for a follow up test.

  1. Take Shower with Care

Once you get over your herniated disc surgery, wait for a couple of days before you start using water on your incision. When showering, never scrub the dressed area and never run it directly under a water force. In case you experience oozing or draining in the incision area, immediately contact the doctor and refrain from showering until the doctor advices you to do so.

  1. Do Exercise Properly
  • Post your surgery the main form of exercise to keep your joints moving is slow walking.
  • Start with short but frequent walks and eventually move on to long slow paced walks which actually help in healing your surgery wound faster.
  • Never put pressure on the incision or the operated disc directly and therefore long term sitting for example in a long drive or lifting heavy items or weight should be refrained from.
  • Maintain a straight and fit posture whilst standing or sitting without any crouches or slouching.
  1. Reduce Constipation

Since the physical activities are often limited right after the surgery has been done, the lack of enough body movement may lead to a constipated situation. To mend these situation add diets that are enriched in fiber to keep your slate clean. Fluid intake more necessarily water consumption should be abundant now.  Since this allows your body metabolism to flourish thereby restraining chronic constipation.

  1. When to Return to Work

If you job involves less moving around and more sitting you can go back to work after the first week of the herniated disc surgery. However, if your job includes physical activities, running around or strenuous situations, you may require rest for a longer time span. To get your physical activities sorted out wait for the complete recovery span.

When does herniated disc surgery require medical attention?

If any of the mentioned symptoms show up, immediately seek medical attention-

  • Chronic painful sensation which remains persistent even after taking analgesics
  • Severe and intense fever with sky high temperature
  • Oozing or draining incision or bruises or patches in and around the incision spot

What Is Saddle Bone Deformity?

Saddle Bone Deformity

A lump on your foot at certain times could be anything from corns, calluses and even abrasions but at times it could even be an issue called saddle bone deformity making it necessary that you get a doctors opinion immediately. Given below is a complete write up on the entire concept of saddle bone deformity and how you can deal with it in the most appropriate manner.

What Is Saddle Bone Deformity?

Saddle bone deformity normally occurs in people between the ages of 25 to 26 years of age when excess activity is carried out on the ball and top of your foot. Three bones connect the foot and saddle bone occurs on the middle of the foot where the middle bone occurs to be present.

It normally begins as a painful protrusion on your foot that grows over time. Though in the coming days the pain will subside naturally the issue can get aggravated when putting pressure on the deformity and the nerve that is directly beneath this issue. Wearing open footwear is your best bet for moving around without any pain in this situation.

How to Diagnose Saddle Bone Deformity

If there is a presence of a distinct lump on the foot then this could indicate the presence of a deformity, regardless of whether there is pain or not. An easy way to do the self-assess is Tinel’s sign, which is a form of test. Just gently tapping the bump with the index and middle fingers is how you can perform the test. There will be a tingling feeling near the top of the foot or it might happen in the toes if you do have saddle bone deformity. The deformity leads to the saddle bone to apply extreme pressure on the peroneal nerve. Go for professional help. They will give you proper intervention through an X-Ray.

Dealing with saddle bone deformity

Given below is a reasoning that it is not difficult to live with this issue.

  1. The Right Footwear

It is important at all times to see the right footwear when facing this issue because you would not want to put any added pressure on saddle bone deformity for a variety of reasons. There are many products that are actually available in the market that could help you out in every way when it comes to the right footwear for this issue and it is always better to go with open footwear for most of the occasions at hand.

  1. Surgery

This deformity can be easily gotten rid of with the help of adequate surgery that just takes about an hour when performed by a professional orthopaedist or any other podiatric surgeon. Doctors will normally tell you to wear open feet footwear a few weeks before surgery so as to not exert any pressure on the deformity. You can stand immediately on the affected foot after surgery but full control will only come a few weeks after the surgery has been completed successfully.

Other Foot Bone Bumps You Should Pay Attention To

Besides the well known saddle bone deformity there are other bumps that you need to pay attention to all well. Here are four of these bumps:

  1. Bunions

The first known bone condition after saddle bone deformity is the very well known bunions that occur in people of all ages. Bunions are an issue that occurs when the toe adjacent to the big toe rubs against the joint of the big toe causing the joint to protrude forward which in turn extreme pain and distress. Bunions are not easy to deal with when they newly form but with the right medication it can be sorted out easily in time. Bunions normally form when wearing tight shoes or keeping your feet enclosed for long periods of time.

  1. Tailor’s Bunions

Smaller bunions normally occur around smaller toes and are called ‘bunionettes’ or in better words tailors bunions. The name was given to this issue because it is said that tailors get these bunions on their smaller toes because of the way they sit. It is very easy to diagnose this issue but X-ray systems are normally used to diagnose the length of the infection. Normally the issue is formed by a smaller toe rubbing against an adjacent toe causing the skin to get inflamed and ache and protrude forward causing increasing distress.

  1. Accessory Navicular Syndrome

This is an issue that does not have many aspects in common with saddle bone deformity but is related in a few ways. The accessory navicular syndrome normally occurs when excessive activity is done to inflame the area in question. This normally occurs due to excessive physical activity and is seen quite commonly in adolescents and young children due to high outdoor activity during this time. Though this issue looks serious with the right mediation it can be dealt with fast and easily without any long lasting effects to the body. it is a common factor though and may rise up at any time in your life so it is always better to stay safe and not over exert yourself when outdoors.

  1. Haglund’s Deformity

Haglund’s deformity can be narrowed down to the inflammation of the fleshy area at the end of the heel. This occurs depending upon how much you irritate this area of the foot. It normally occurs when wearing tight shoes where pressure is put on this area of the foot in a continuous fashion causing inflammation and pus to fill up in the fluid filled area of the foot.

The possibility that it occurs in women over the years has gone up due to the rising fashion of pump style heels giving it the very popular name pump bump. Many reasons cause this issue to occur for example the stress one puts on the front of the heel along with a tight Achilles tendon.

Saddle bone deformity on its own is not at all painful and has no side effects except a deformed bone sticking out of your foot but mixed with Haglund’s disease an you got a painful situation on your hands. The disease starts with the bone connecting the heel with the Achilles tendon to the back of the foot and is very painful;. A pus filled sac is quite normal to be seen.

Note: A bump on the foot may not always be a skin issue or deformity but it may very well be a saddle bone deformity which is why you must get a professional opinion on the matter immediately.